The arrest of a leading politician has shaken up Russia's most turbulent republic. But will anything really change?
- By Anna NemtsovaAnna Nemtsova is a Moscow-based correspondent for Newsweek and the Daily Beast, covering Russia and the former Soviet states. She is also the winner of the 2012 Persephone Miel Fellowship.
MOSCOW — On a recent afternoon in the city of Makhachkala, the capital of Russia’s Dagestan region, I sat with two senior police officers, discussing the latest news over a cup of green tea. Something absolutely unprecedented had just happened. The Kremlin had sent a contingent of police officers into the city by helicopter. They arrested mayor Said Amirov and flew him off to Moscow, where they put him behind bars. Prosecutors have said that they’re charging him with ordering the murder of a state investigator.
This is an extraordinary departure for President Vladimir Putin, who’s famous for giving regional officials free reign as long as they’re loyal. Amirov, however, may well be a special case. Known informally as "Said the Immortal" (he’s survived 12 assassination attempts) and "the Octopus" (his influence reaches into all corners of the republic), Amirov ruled Dagestan for 15 years, controlling criminal gangs that are frequently intertwined with local Islamist insurgencies (and even law enforcement agencies as well). Given the length of Amirov’s reign, it could be argued that Putin actually bided his time when it came to dismissing the mayor. Many in the republic have greeted Amirov’s arrest with relief. My hosts from the police force told me that the mayor’s departure offers Dagestan new hope for a peaceful life.
Interrupting each other to correct details and facts, the two men recalled terror attacks that have taken dozens of lives on their force over the past three years, leaving heartbroken widows and orphans behind. Lieutenant Colonel Magomed Isayev handed me a list of men who once served in his police unit: "These are just the names that I can remember off the top of my head," Isayev said, a shadow passing over his face.
The guerillas who are fighting in Dagestan to establish an independent Islamic state see the men in uniform as servants of the Kremlin and violators of sharia law. Over the past few years the ultraconservative salafi community in Dagestan has mushroomed, expanding from one mosque in Makhachkala in 2006 to over a dozen in 2013. No one knows the precise numbers, but conservative Islam is growing more and more popular among young people. For the moment, the majority of Dagestanis are still sticking to their traditional Sufi beliefs, but it may not stay that way for long.
Law enforcement officials fall victim to the underground militia’s attacks almost every week. Kavkazky Uzel, an independent online publication, reports that 14 law enforcement officials were killed in Dagestan during the first three months of 2013. Yet there are also some members of officialdom who seem to sympathize with the insurgents, sometimes thanks to family ties. As so often in this part of the world, it’s almost impossible to unravel the intricate connections between the police and the people they’re supposed to be combating. In the eyes of many, Amirov himself exemplifies this melding of criminality and government. There have even been reports [in Russian] that the mayor hired members of the insurgency to kill his enemies.
There are some moments, the two police officers told me, that they simply can’t forget. "There are a lot of times when we’re cordoning off a site after an explosion," Lieutenant Colonel Magomed Guseinov explained. "Then, once there’s a bunch of us there, another bomb goes off. They’re trying to kill as many police as they can." In 2011, Guseinov himself was wounded by one of these follow-up bombs, hit by shrapnel in his leg, cheek, and shoulder.
One night a plastic bag left on a Makhachkala street exploded, luring dozens of policemen to the scene. The cops were asking passersby to move away from a suspicious-looking car that Guseinov suspected might be loaded with explosives. Sure enough, the car blew up, throwing Guseinov high in the air, killing a young police officer, and wounding several others.
"Mayor Amirov was behind some of the attacks," Guseinov assured me. "Now that he’s in jail, the situation will calm down and no one military operations will be needed." So why would a mayor order terrorist attacks or the murder of state officials? Guseinov and Isayev believe in a theory, widespread in Dagestan, that claims that Amirov aimed to deliberately destabilize the situation in order to prove the incompetence of other regional leaders. His hope was that the Kremlin would appoint him as the republic’s president in order to get the situation back under control.
But the Russian military forces based in Dagestan don’t have any plans to leave yet. On the contrary, troops, ammunition, and armored vehicles have been streaming into the republic since last June. Yet despite growing military bases, constant special operations, and the detention of anyone suspected of links with the insurgency, the attacks on officials still haven’t stopped.
The day after my conversation with Isayev and Guseinov, a bomb planted under a police car went off, blowing off a police officer’s leg. That’s the fourth casualty this week, following the deaths of three other official in another attack a few days ago. Whether you’re sitting on the veranda of the Russian Theater in downtown Makhachkala, strolling along the sandy beach by the Caspian Sea, or driving a gypsy cab through one of Dagestan’s myriad police checkpoints, the threat of sudden violence lingers in the warm air.
It took a few days, but those who initially celebrated the mayor’s arrest soon came to understand that explosions will not disappear in the post-Amirov era. Nothing has fundamentally changed. Suicide bombers continue to blow themselves up, killing civilians and officials. The police and federal security have not changed their tactics of abducting and torturing suspects.
A few years ago the former President Dmitry Medvedev identified "monstrous scales of corruption" as one of the main causes of troubles in Russian North Caucuses. A few weeks before Mayor Amirov’s arrest, I asked him if the corruption that Medvedev pointed to was in fact motivating the insurgency in Dagestan. "Indeed, corruption and terror go together here," the mayor told me. "They’re synonyms." He was trying to claim, of course, that it’s only the other people who are corrupt, but I doubt that many Dagestanis would believe that. It’s widely known around the republic that choice government jobs are for sale. You can order just about anyone’s murder or abduction for the right price, and you can find plenty of people to do the job in the private security companies or among the guerillas.
A remarkable movement of both retired and active police officers in Dagestan is risking their careers and lives by courageously warning about the dangers of rampant corruption. A group of them arrived in Moscow last February and gave a remarkable press conference on the role of the police in the conflict zone. They demanded that they authorities launch a large scale war against corruption in the troubled republic.
I met with a few of the activists for lunch last weekend to see what they thought about the Kremlin’s arrest of the man who symbolized Dagestan’s sleaze. They w
ere unimpressed. The arrest didn’t mean that the government had decided to respect the laws, they told me; on the contrary, now an even more corrupt criminal clan was set to take power. "The entire system is rotten," the group’s leader told me. "You can buy and sell jobs and lives on all levels in our republic. Just start following the constitution and the laws, and the war will be over." Then he sighed. "After so many years they finally arrested one Amirov. But 10 other Amirovs will go on applying his methods: stealing money, firing critics, or executing anyone who gets in the way of the path to gaining more power."
The Russian authorities should pay more attention to voices like these. There are real Russian patriots trying to help the Kremlin make peace in the North Caucasus.