The Islamic State began 2015 in control of vast swaths of Syria and Iraq and at one point this summer controlled three of Iraq’s biggest cities. The terrorist group ends the year in far worse shape, with a U.S.-led air campaign hammering its fighters from the skies while Iraqi soldiers, Iranian paramilitary operatives, Shiite militias, Syrian rebels, and Kurdish Peshmerga battle them on the ground.
The map below shows where the Islamic State stands at year’s end. In Syria, the militant group managed to seize Palmyra in May but elsewhere has been forced to give up a sizable stretch of land along the Turkish border in the face of a concerted push by Kurdish fighters backed up by U.S.-led air power. And in Iraq, Baghdad’s slow-moving army has managed to score three significant victories, dislodging the Islamic State from Tikrit in March and Baiji in October, and this week wresting control of the pivotal western city of Ramadi back from the militants.
The fight for Ramadi is notable not just for the retaking of the city, but for how the Iraqi government did it. Baghdad managed to keep the powerful Iranian-backed Shiite militias out of the fight, thereby removing a major point of friction with the local Sunni populace. That, combined with the use of well-trained troops backed by overwhelming American air power, will likely prove to be a model in the coming fights for Fallujah and Mosul.
Overall, a recent analysis by IHS Inc. calculates that during the course of 2015, the Islamic State lost 14 percent of the territory it controlled at the start of the year, while the Iraqi government increased its share by 6 percent and the Iraqi Kurds by 2 percent. The situation looks much different on the other side of the border, however, where the Syrian Kurds have emerged as the big winner, increasing their share of territory by 186 percent.
Photo credit: AHMAD AL-RUBAYE/AFP/Getty Images