Special Report

The Most Dynamic Cities of 2025

An exclusive look at the 75 powerhouses of the coming urban revolution, brought to you by FP in partnership with the McKinsey Global Institute.

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Population (millions) GDP (billions of U.S. dollars)
Rank City Country 2010 2025 2010 2025 Total Growth % Growth
1 Shanghai China 22.3 30.9 $250.7 $1,112.2 $861.5 344%
2 Beijing China 18.8 29.6 206.2 1,027.9 821.7 398%
3 Tianjin China 11.1 15.2 128.8 624.4 495.7 385%
4 São Paulo Brazil 19.7 23.2 437.3 912.9 475.7 109%
5 Guangzhou China 11.1 14.9 146.1 573.0 426.9 292%
6 Shenzhen China 10.4 13.7 141.5 523.6 382.1 270%
7 New York United States 18.9 19.7 1,180.3 1,553.1 372.7 32%
8 Chongqing China 15.7 19.4 88.6 458.6 370.0 418%
9 Moscow Russia 11.6 12.7 325.8 688.5 362.7 111%
10 Tokyo Japan 36.4 36.7 1,874.7 2,218.6 343.9 18%
11 Wuhan China 9.8 13.1 82.2 414.4 332.2 404%
12 Los Angeles United States 12.9 15.0 731.8 1,051.5 319.7 44%
13 Foshan China 7.2 10.8 83.5 383.6 300.1 360%
14 Istanbul Turkey 11.0 14.9 188.2 479.7 291.5 155%
15 Nanjing China 7.2 9.9 68.5 343.9 275.4 402%
16 Chengdu China 7.7 11.2 57.8 309.6 251.7 435%
17 Hangzhou China 6.2 8.8 70.5 307.0 236.5 335%
18 Dongguan China 8.2 11.4 62.7 297.9 235.2 375%
19 Singapore Singapore 5.1 5.8 222.7 454.1 231.4 104%
20 Shenyang China 6.1 8.4 64.3 286.9 222.5 346%
21 London Britain 14.9 16.2 751.8 972.9 221.1 29%
22 Houston United States 6.0 7.7 341.1 559.9 218.8 64%
23 Dallas United States 6.4 8.6 324.9 541.2 216.3 67%
24 Xian China 6.5 9.1 40.6 253.3 212.6 523%
25 Washington United States 5.6 6.6 392.2 599.7 207.5 53%
26 Paris France 11.8 12.9 764.2 971.4 207.2 27%
27 Suzhou China 4.1 6.5 52.7 257.5 204.8 389%
28 Mexico City Mexico 20.1 21.6 255.1 459.5 204.4 80%
29 Riyadh Saudi Arabia 5.2 8.1 122.7 325.6 202.9 165%
30 Hong Kong China 7.1 8.2 224.5 423.6 199.1 89%
31 Bangkok Thailand 6.9 9.4 105.0 299.6 194.6 185%
32 Buenos Aires Argentina 13.1 15.2 191.7 384.3 192.6 100%
33 Doha Qatar 1.3 1.6 98.8 275.1 176.3 179%
34 Rio de Janeiro Brazil 11.8 13.6 180.9 356.1 175.2 97%
35 Dalian China 3.9 5.7 53.8 225.7 171.9 319%
36 Wuxi China 3.5 5.4 47.0 217.2 170.2 362%
37 Seoul South Korea 9.8 9.5 233.3 400.3 167.0 72%
38 Chicago United States 9.5 10.2 496.4 661.4 165.0 33%
39 Delhi India 16.3 21.4 47.6 211.4 163.9 344%
40 Ningbo China 3.5 5.1 45.0 205.7 160.8 358%
41 Jinan China 4.3 5.7 43.2 193.4 150.2 348%
42 Xiamen China 3.5 5.3 30.4 179.8 149.3 491%
43 Jakarta Indonesia 9.6 12.8 70.7 218.4 147.7 209%
44 Miami United States 5.6 7.2 235.9 380.2 144.34 61%
45 Kuwait City Kuwait 2.3 3.2 117.5 261.8 144.33 123%
46 Qingdao China 3.7 5.1 48.1 190.1 142.0 295%
47 Sydney Australia 4.6 5.8 268.9 410.6 141.8 53%
48 Atlanta United States 5.3 6.8 249.7 391.4 141.7 57%
49 Brasilia Brazil 3.7 5.0 101.6 242.6 141.03 139%
50 Taipei Taiwan 6.8 6.9 160.3 301.3 141.00 88%
51 Rhine-Ruhr Germany 11.3 11.1 484.6 625.0 140.4 29%
52 Toronto Canada 5.7 7.0 270.0 409.9 139.9 52%
53 Mumbai India 18.2 22.5 55.9 192.7 136.8 245%
54 Phoenix United States 4.2 5.9 181.6 317.5 135.9 75%
55 Harbin China 5.9 7.6 38.8 172.9 134.0 345%
56 Changzhou China 3.3 4.8 34.3 166.2 131.9 385%
57 San Francisco United States 4.3 5.0 283.3 410.7 127.3 45%
58 Hefei China 3.4 4.8 31.2 154.8 123.6 396%
59 Jeddah Saudi Arabia 3.5 5.2 75.9 196.9 121.0 159%
60 Melbourne Australia 4.1 5.2 221.4 341.7 120.3 54%
61 Luanda Angola 4.8 8.9 38.6 155.6 117.0 303%
62 Xuzhou China 3.1 4.5 22.4 134.1 111.7 499%
63 Tel Aviv-Jaffa Israel 3.3 4.3 114.8 225.9 111.0 97%
64 Changsha China 3.1 4.3 40.3 150.1 109.8 272%
65 Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates 0.8 1.6 67.1 175.9 108.8 162%
66 Lima Peru 9.2 11.8 77.3 184.7 107.3 139%
67 Belo Horizonte Brazil 5.4 6.6 78.5 185.3 106.9 136%
68 Fuzhou China 2.9 4.2 23.4 130.0 106.6 456%
69 Ankara Turkey 4.1 5.7 64.9 170.3 105.4 162%
70 San Diego United States 3.1 3.9 172.9 277.5 104.6 61%
71 Philadelphia United States 6.0 6.3 314.5 418.6 104.1 33%
72 Tangshan China 3.0 3.7 33.6 137.6 104.0 309%
73 Santiago Chile 6.1 7.3 93.0 196.8 103.8 112%
74 Seattle United States 3.4 4.1 211.0 314.3 103.3 49%
75 Bangalore India 8.2 11.3 28.6 128.8 100.2 350%

Ranked by projected absolute GDP growth 2012-2025 at predicted real exchange rates.
Source: McKinsey Global Institute Cityscope database 2.0. 

About the index: Developed using McKinsey Global Institute’s Cityscope database of 2,600 cities, the index represents one possible scenario of the urban world’s evolution. Cities refer to integrated metropolitan areas, aggregating neighboring cities into a single urban center where appropriate. Estimates are based on underlying demographic and GDP per capita growth projections, and subject to significant uncertainty in evolution of everything from population and migration patterns to per capita GDP growth and exchange rate outlook. For more on data sources and methodologies, please see the appendix of "Urban World: Cities and the Rise of the Consuming Class" at www.mckinsey.com/mgi.

Population (millions) GDP (billions of U.S. dollars)
Rank City Country 2010 2025 2010 2025 Total Growth % Growth
1 Shanghai China 22.3 30.9 $250.7 $1,112.2 $861.5 344%
2 Beijing China 18.8 29.6 206.2 1,027.9 821.7 398%
3 Tianjin China 11.1 15.2 128.8 624.4 495.7 385%
4 São Paulo Brazil 19.7 23.2 437.3 912.9 475.7 109%
5 Guangzhou China 11.1 14.9 146.1 573.0 426.9 292%
6 Shenzhen China 10.4 13.7 141.5 523.6 382.1 270%
7 New York United States 18.9 19.7 1,180.3 1,553.1 372.7 32%
8 Chongqing China 15.7 19.4 88.6 458.6 370.0 418%
9 Moscow Russia 11.6 12.7 325.8 688.5 362.7 111%
10 Tokyo Japan 36.4 36.7 1,874.7 2,218.6 343.9 18%
11 Wuhan China 9.8 13.1 82.2 414.4 332.2 404%
12 Los Angeles United States 12.9 15.0 731.8 1,051.5 319.7 44%
13 Foshan China 7.2 10.8 83.5 383.6 300.1 360%
14 Istanbul Turkey 11.0 14.9 188.2 479.7 291.5 155%
15 Nanjing China 7.2 9.9 68.5 343.9 275.4 402%
16 Chengdu China 7.7 11.2 57.8 309.6 251.7 435%
17 Hangzhou China 6.2 8.8 70.5 307.0 236.5 335%
18 Dongguan China 8.2 11.4 62.7 297.9 235.2 375%
19 Singapore Singapore 5.1 5.8 222.7 454.1 231.4 104%
20 Shenyang China 6.1 8.4 64.3 286.9 222.5 346%
21 London Britain 14.9 16.2 751.8 972.9 221.1 29%
22 Houston United States 6.0 7.7 341.1 559.9 218.8 64%
23 Dallas United States 6.4 8.6 324.9 541.2 216.3 67%
24 Xian China 6.5 9.1 40.6 253.3 212.6 523%
25 Washington United States 5.6 6.6 392.2 599.7 207.5 53%
26 Paris France 11.8 12.9 764.2 971.4 207.2 27%
27 Suzhou China 4.1 6.5 52.7 257.5 204.8 389%
28 Mexico City Mexico 20.1 21.6 255.1 459.5 204.4 80%
29 Riyadh Saudi Arabia 5.2 8.1 122.7 325.6 202.9 165%
30 Hong Kong China 7.1 8.2 224.5 423.6 199.1 89%
31 Bangkok Thailand 6.9 9.4 105.0 299.6 194.6 185%
32 Buenos Aires Argentina 13.1 15.2 191.7 384.3 192.6 100%
33 Doha Qatar 1.3 1.6 98.8 275.1 176.3 179%
34 Rio de Janeiro Brazil 11.8 13.6 180.9 356.1 175.2 97%
35 Dalian China 3.9 5.7 53.8 225.7 171.9 319%
36 Wuxi China 3.5 5.4 47.0 217.2 170.2 362%
37 Seoul South Korea 9.8 9.5 233.3 400.3 167.0 72%
38 Chicago United States 9.5 10.2 496.4 661.4 165.0 33%
39 Delhi India 16.3 21.4 47.6 211.4 163.9 344%
40 Ningbo China 3.5 5.1 45.0 205.7 160.8 358%
41 Jinan China 4.3 5.7 43.2 193.4 150.2 348%
42 Xiamen China 3.5 5.3 30.4 179.8 149.3 491%
43 Jakarta Indonesia 9.6 12.8 70.7 218.4 147.7 209%
44 Miami United States 5.6 7.2 235.9 380.2 144.34 61%
45 Kuwait City Kuwait 2.3 3.2 117.5 261.8 144.33 123%
46 Qingdao China 3.7 5.1 48.1 190.1 142.0 295%
47 Sydney Australia 4.6 5.8 268.9 410.6 141.8 53%
48 Atlanta United States 5.3 6.8 249.7 391.4 141.7 57%
49 Brasilia Brazil 3.7 5.0 101.6 242.6 141.03 139%
50 Taipei Taiwan 6.8 6.9 160.3 301.3 141.00 88%
51 Rhine-Ruhr Germany 11.3 11.1 484.6 625.0 140.4 29%
52 Toronto Canada 5.7 7.0 270.0 409.9 139.9 52%
53 Mumbai India 18.2 22.5 55.9 192.7 136.8 245%
54 Phoenix United States 4.2 5.9 181.6 317.5 135.9 75%
55 Harbin China 5.9 7.6 38.8 172.9 134.0 345%
56 Changzhou China 3.3 4.8 34.3 166.2 131.9 385%
57 San Francisco United States 4.3 5.0 283.3 410.7 127.3 45%
58 Hefei China 3.4 4.8 31.2 154.8 123.6 396%
59 Jeddah Saudi Arabia 3.5 5.2 75.9 196.9 121.0 159%
60 Melbourne Australia 4.1 5.2 221.4 341.7 120.3 54%
61 Luanda Angola 4.8 8.9 38.6 155.6 117.0 303%
62 Xuzhou China 3.1 4.5 22.4 134.1 111.7 499%
63 Tel Aviv-Jaffa Israel 3.3 4.3 114.8 225.9 111.0 97%
64 Changsha China 3.1 4.3 40.3 150.1 109.8 272%
65 Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates 0.8 1.6 67.1 175.9 108.8 162%
66 Lima Peru 9.2 11.8 77.3 184.7 107.3 139%
67 Belo Horizonte Brazil 5.4 6.6 78.5 185.3 106.9 136%
68 Fuzhou China 2.9 4.2 23.4 130.0 106.6 456%
69 Ankara Turkey 4.1 5.7 64.9 170.3 105.4 162%
70 San Diego United States 3.1 3.9 172.9 277.5 104.6 61%
71 Philadelphia United States 6.0 6.3 314.5 418.6 104.1 33%
72 Tangshan China 3.0 3.7 33.6 137.6 104.0 309%
73 Santiago Chile 6.1 7.3 93.0 196.8 103.8 112%
74 Seattle United States 3.4 4.1 211.0 314.3 103.3 49%
75 Bangalore India 8.2 11.3 28.6 128.8 100.2 350%

Ranked by projected absolute GDP growth 2012-2025 at predicted real exchange rates.
Source: McKinsey Global Institute Cityscope database 2.0. 

About the index: Developed using McKinsey Global Institute’s Cityscope database of 2,600 cities, the index represents one possible scenario of the urban world’s evolution. Cities refer to integrated metropolitan areas, aggregating neighboring cities into a single urban center where appropriate. Estimates are based on underlying demographic and GDP per capita growth projections, and subject to significant uncertainty in evolution of everything from population and migration patterns to per capita GDP growth and exchange rate outlook. For more on data sources and methodologies, please see the appendix of "Urban World: Cities and the Rise of the Consuming Class" at www.mckinsey.com/mgi.

Cara Parks is deputy managing editor at Foreign Policy. Prior to that she was the World editor at the Huffington Post. She is a graduate of Bard College and the Columbia Graduate School of Journalism, and has written for The New Republic, Interview, Radar, and Publishers Weekly, among others. Twitter: @caraparks

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