Election2020

Joe Biden speaks to diners at the Tasty Cafe during a campaign stop in Eldridge, Iowa, on June 12.
Joe Biden speaks to diners at the Tasty Cafe during a campaign stop in Eldridge, Iowa, on June 12. Scott Olson/Getty Images

Joe Biden

Former vice president

China

“While Trump is pursuing a damaging and erratic trade war, without any real strategy, China is positioning itself to lead the world in renewable energy. While Trump is attacking our friends, China is pressing its advantage all over the world. So you bet I’m worried about China—if we keep following Trump’s path.”

June 11, 2019, at an Iowa campaign event

Human Rights & China

“China’s continuing oppression of its own people, especially the abuse and internment of more than one million Uyghurs, is one of the worst human rights crises in the world today. It can’t be ignored. Human rights must be at the core—not periphery—of our engagement in the world.”

June 4, 2019, on Twitter

Climate Change

“He will not only recommit the United States to the Paris Agreement on climate change – he will go much further than that. He will lead an effort to get every major country to ramp up the ambition of their domestic climate targets.”

Campaign website

“It is an existential threat. There is no doubt about that. And the fact of the matter is that we make up 15 percent of the problem. The rest of the world makes up 80 percent, 85 percent of the problem. If we did everything perfectly, everything, and we must and should in order to get other countries to move, we still have to get the rest of the world to come along.”

Sept. 4, 2019, at the CNN Climate Crisis Town Hall 

Yemen

“Biden believes it is past time to end U.S. support for the war in Yemen and cancel the blank check the Trump administration has given Saudi Arabia for its conduct of that war.”

May 1, 2019, from a campaign spokesperson in the Washington Post

Russia

“Russia’s assault on democracy and subversion of democratic political systems calls for a strong response. The United States and its allies must improve their ability to deter Russian military aggression and work together more closely to strengthen their energy security and prevent Russia’s nonmilitary forms of coercion. They must also reduce the vulnerability of their political systems, media environments, financial sectors, and cyber-infrastructure.”

January/February 2018, from a co-authored piece in Foreign Affairs

“Foreign election interference is not only a serious threat to our democratic institutions, it’s a threat to our national security. Russia and other authoritarian regimes are actively seeking to try to change outcomes of our democratic elections, and we can’t allow that to happen.”

Feb. 22, 2019, on Twitter

North Korea

“This guy [Kim Jong Un] is a thug.”

Feb. 28, 2019, at the Chuck Hagel Forum in Global Leadership at the University of Nebraska at Omaha

“The historic Iran nuclear deal the Obama-Biden administration negotiated blocked Iran from getting a nuclear weapon, and it provides a blueprint for an effective negotiation.”

Aug. 1, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

 

Iran

“The way to keep Iran from being a nuclear power is to stay in the agreement. That’s what was negotiated.”

May 14, 2019, at a New Hampshire campaign stop

Israel and Palestine

“I firmly believe that the actions that Israel’s government has taken over the past the past several years—the steady and systematic expansion of settlements, the legalization of outposts, land seizures—they’re moving us and, more importantly, they’re moving Israel in the wrong direction.”

April 18, 2016, at a J Street gala

International Institutions

“I strongly support NATO. I believe it is the single most significant military alliance in the history of the world. And I think it’s been the basis upon which we’ve been able to keep peace and stability for the past 70 years. And it is the heart of our collective security. It is the basis upon which the United States is able to exercise its responsibilities in other parts of the world as well.”

Feb. 16, 2019, at the Munich Security Conference

“I think, first of all, we’ve got to stop treating NATO like a protection racket, which is the way we’re doing it now.”

Feb. 16, 2019, at the Munich Security Conference

“We know NATO will fall apart if [Trump] is elected four more years, it is the single most consequential alliance in the history of the United States.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

 

Trade

“Fair trade is important. Not free trade. Fair trade. And I think that back in the time during the Clinton administration, it made sense at the moment.”

May 13, 2019, in an Associated Press interview

“I’m a fair trader. That’s why I’ve been arguing for a long time that we should treat other countries the way in which they treat us, which is, particularly as it relates to China: If they want to trade here, they’re going to be under the same rules.”

April 30, 2019, at an Iowa campaign stop

Immigration

“Deporting Dreamers just a few days before their high school graduation, separating children from their parents on the border. That isn’t who we are. We’re better than that.”

May 7, 2019, at a Nevada campaign rally

Trade & China

“I would not rejoin the [Trans-Pacific Partnership] as it was initially put forward. I would insist that we renegotiate pieces of that with the Pacific nations that we had in South America and North America, so that we could bring them together to hold China accountable”

July 31, 2019, at the second Democratic debate

“If we don’t set the rules, we, in fact, are going to find ourselves with China setting the rules. And that’s why you need to organize the world to take on China, to stop the corrupt practices that are underway.”

Sept. 12, 2019, at the third Democratic debate

Afghanistan

“The whole purpose of going to Afghanistan was to not have a counterinsurgency, meaning that we’re going to put that country together. It cannot be put together. Let me say it again. It will not be put together.”

Sept. 12, 2019, at the third Democratic debate

Yemen & Saudi Arabia

“I would end U.S. support for the disastrous Saudi-led war in Yemen and order a reassessment of our relationship with Saudi Arabia.”

In an undated interview with the Washington Post

Saudi Arabia

“America’s priorities in the Middle East should be set in Washington, not Riyadh.”

Aug. 1, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

Elizabeth Warren at a campaign town hall in  Fairfax, Virginia, on May 16.
Elizabeth Warren at a campaign town hall in Fairfax, Virginia, on May 16. Alex Wong/Getty Images

Elizabeth Warren

U.S. senator from Massachusetts

Human Rights

“Around the world, democracy is under assault. Authoritarian governments are gaining power. Right-wing demagogues are gaining strength. Movements toward openness and pluralism have stalled and begun to reverse. Inequality is rapidly growing, transforming rule by the people into rule by wealthy elites. And here at home, many American politicians seem to accept—even embrace—the politics of division and resentment.”

Nov. 29, 2018, in a speech at American University

Trade

“As President, I won’t hand America’s leverage to big corporations to use for their own narrow purposes — I’ll use it to create and defend good American jobs, raise wages and farm income, combat climate change, lower drug prices, and raise living standards worldwide. We will engage in international trade — but on our terms and only when it benefits American families.”

“We must do the hard work of transforming every aspect of our current approach to trade: from our negotiating process to the negotiating objectives we pursue to the way we enforce agreements.”

July 29, 2019, in a policy announcement on Medium

“U.S. trade policy has delivered one punch in the gut after another to workers and to the unions that fight for them.”

“Policymakers promised that open markets would lead to open societies. Wow. Did Washington get that one wrong. Efforts to bring capitalism to the global stage unwittingly helped create the conditions for anti-democratic countries to rise up and lash out.”

Nov. 29, 2018, in a speech at American University

“The way we change our trade policy in America is, first, the procedures. Who sits at the table? I want to negotiate trade with unions at the table. I want to negotiate it with small farmers at the table. I want to negotiate it with environmentalists at the table. I want to negotiate with human rights activists at the table.”

Sept. 12, 2019, at the third Democratic debate 

“As president, I will make sure that any new trade agreement we enter sets strong standards and prioritizes working families instead of the interests of giant multinational corporations with no particular allegiance or loyalty to America.”

Sept. 16, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

Yemen & Saudi Arabia

“In some cases, as with our support for Saudi Arabia’s proxy war in Yemen, U.S. policies risk generating even more extremism.”

Nov. 29, 2018, in a speech at American University

Saudi Arabia

“Saudi Arabia brutally murdered a journalist in its own consulate and bombed Yemeni civilians with US-armed warplanes. And if that wasn’t bad enough, it also may have transferred US weapons to violent extremists. It’s time to start holding Saudi Arabia accountable.”

Feb. 22, 2019, on Twitter

“Selling more weapons to Saudi Arabia doesn’t make America safer or align with our country’s values. It only benefits defense contractors and @realDonaldTrump’s alarming desire to sow chaos abroad.”

May 25, 2019, on Twitter

 

Yemen & Saudi Arabia

“We need to face the ugly truth – by continuing to enable Saudi Arabia, America is complicit in the humanitarian crisis in Yemen. We must end our support for this war now.”

Feb. 6, 2019, in a news release

Afghanistan

“We’ve turned the corner in Afghanistan so many times that we’re now going in circles. Poppy production is up. The Taliban are on the rise. Afghan forces are taking unsustainable losses. The government is losing territory and credibility.”

Nov. 29, 2018, in a speech at American University

Syria & Afghanistan

“I think it is right to get our troops out of Syria—and, let me add, I think it’s right to get our troops out of Afghanistan.”

Jan. 2, 2019, in an interview with MSNBC

China

“China is on the rise, using its economic might to bludgeon its way onto the world stage and offering a model in which economic gains legitimize oppression.”

Nov. 29, 2018, in a speech at American University

“China’s economic policies undercut American workers. Its military ambitions and coercive diplomacy threaten peace in Asia and beyond. Its repression at home, including its treatment of the Uighur minority, and attacks on norms abroad risk eroding liberal values around the world.”

Oct. 3, 2019, in a Foreign Policy op-ed

 

Russia

“To mask its decline, Russia is provoking the international community with opportunistic harassment and covert attacks—including just this week, when Russia seized three Ukrainian Navy ships near Crimea.”

“Vladimir Putin attacks the free press and thumps his chest about the power of Russia, but his real power comes from state-run corporations conveniently overseen by his friends and cronies. Corruption.”

Nov. 29, 2018, in a speech at American University

Climate Change

“Like we have before, we should bank on American ingenuity and American workers to lead the global effort to face down this threat — and create more than a million good jobs here at home.”

June 4, 2019, in a campaign post on Medium

“The fossil fuel industry wants to keep us arguing about light bulbs and cheeseburgers while 70% of pollution comes from just three industries. We need to focus on creating big, structural change to tackle this climate crisis and the Washington corruption head-on.”

Sept. 4, 2019, on Twitter 

 

North Korea

“I want to see the President succeed, but a handshake is no substitute for a binding, verifiable deal.”

June 12, 2018, in a news release

“As a first step, and in coordination with our partners and allies, I would be prepared to consider partial, limited sanctions relief in return for a strong, verifiable agreement that keeps North Korea from expanding its arsenal or proliferating to other countries.”

Sep. 16, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

Iran

“Our intelligence community told us again and again: The #IranDeal was working to prevent Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon. If Iran continues to abide by the terms of the deal, you bet I will support returning to it.”

Feb. 23, 2019, on Twitter

“As president, I would make sure our country gets back on the 2015 Iran Deal. We can’t afford another forever war, and I’m fighting to stop Donald Trump from dragging us into another one.”

June 26, 2019, on Twitter

“If Iran returns to compliance with its obligations under the nuclear deal, the United States should return as well.”

Sept. 16, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

Israel and Palestine

“I believe that as a good ally to everyone in the region that we should be pushing hard back toward a two-state solution and toward insisting on both parts, and that is security for Israel and dignity and self-determination for all of the Palestinian people.”

April 12, 2019, at an event at the University of New Hampshire

“The way we respect all parties is through a two-state solution – an outcome that’s good for U.S. interests, good for Israel’s security and its future, and good for Palestinian aspirations for dignity and self-determination. To achieve this, there must be an end to the Israeli occupation and the creation of an independent and sovereign Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip living alongside Israel.”

Sept. 16, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

International Institutions

“America is strongest when we work together with our allies – including the 28 NATO members who share our democratic values. Undermining NATO is a gift to Putin that @realDonaldTrump seems all too happy to give.”

July 11, 2018, on Twitter

Terrorism

“Just like the hateful terrorism of al Qaeda and ISIS, domestic right-wing terrorism is completely incompatible with American values. It is a threat to the safety and security of the United States, and we must not tolerate it in the United States.”

Nov. 29, 2018, in a speech at American University

Energy

“On my first day as president, I will sign an executive order that says no more drilling — a total moratorium on all new fossil fuel leases, including for drilling offshore and on public lands.”

April 15, 2019, in a campaign post on Medium

Immigration

“I think we need immigration laws that focus on people who pose a real threat, and I don’t think mommas and babies are the place that we should be spending our resources. Separating a momma from a baby does not make this country safer.”

Aug. 22, 2018, in an interview with CNN

Syria

“I support bringing our troops home from Syria. But President Trump’s reckless and unplanned withdrawal undermines both our partners and our security. We need a strategy to end this conflict, not a president who can be swayed by one phone call.”

Oct. 7, 2019, on Twitter

 

Bernie Sanders greets the crowd in North Charleston, South Carolina, on March 14.
Bernie Sanders greets the crowd in North Charleston, South Carolina, on March 14. Sean Rayford/Getty Images

Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator from Vermont

Trade & China

“Since the China trade deal I voted against, America has lost over 3 million manufacturing jobs. It’s wrong to pretend that China isn’t one of our major economic competitors. When we are in the White House we will win that competition by fixing our trade policies.”

May 1, 2019, on Twitter

Yemen

“The bottom line is that the United States should not be supporting a catastrophic war led by a despotic regime with a dangerous and irresponsible foreign policy.”

March 13, 2019, in a Senate floor speech

North Korea

“I think, look, nuclear weapons in the hands of a brutal, irresponsible dictator is a bad idea. And if Trump can succeed … through face-to-face meetings with Kim Jong Un and rid that country of nuclear weapons, that is a very good thing. So I think that the idea of going and meeting face to face with your adversaries is a good idea.”

Feb. 25, 2019, at a CNN town hall

Saudi Arabia

“This is a despotic dictatorship that does not tolerate dissent, that treats women as third-class citizens, and has spent the last several decades exporting a very extreme form of Islam around the world. Saudi Arabia is currently devastating the country of Yemen in a catastrophic war in alliance with the United States.”

Oct. 9, 2018, in a speech at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies

“I helped lead the effort for the first time to utilize the War Powers Act to get the United States out of these Saudi-led intervention in Yemen, which is the most horrific humanitarian disaster on Earth.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

“[Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman] is a murderer. And it’s not only his murder of [Jamal] Khashoggi. He murders many people. He treats women as third-class citizens and he runs a regime which is fiercely opposed to democracy. So this is not a country which should be our ally. We’re going to change our relationship with dictatorships all over the world, and as we move to sustainable energy, we are not going to be needing their oil any longer.”

Oct. 2, 2019, at a Nevada campaign stop

Israel and Palestine

“I am not anti-Israel, but the fact of the matter is Netanyahu is a right-wing politician who I think is treating the Palestinian people extremely unfairly.”

April 22, 2019, at a CNN town hall

Climate Change

“Our job is to rally the entire planet to stand up to the fossil fuel industry, which continues to make huge profits while their carbon emissions destroy the planet for our children and grandchildren.”

Oct. 9, 2018, in a speech at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies

“I’ll tell you what else, in my view, is a national security issue. And that is: We have got, as a nation, to reject Trump’s idea that climate change is a hoax.”

“I fear very much the kind of world that we’re leaving to our kids in terms of more drought, more flooding, more extreme weather disturbances, more rising ocean levels. And when those things happen, by the way, they become a national security issue, because people migrate. … If I’m living in the Mideast someplace and I can’t grow food on my land, I’m going to pick up and leave, and that causes conflict.”

April 15, 2019, at a Fox News town hall

“Reaching 100 percent renewable energy for electricity and transportation by no later than 2030 and complete decarbonization by 2050 at latest.”

Campaign website

Immigration

“Our job is to fight back against brutal immigration policies that require separating migrant families when they are detained at the border and require children to be put in cages. Migrants and refugees should be treated with compassion and respect when they reach Europe or the United States. Yes, we need better international cooperation to address the flow of migrants across borders, but the solution is not to build walls and amplify the cruelty toward those fleeing impossible conditions as a deterrence strategy.”

Oct. 9, 2018, in a speech at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies

“We [have] got to look at the root causes. And you have a situation where Honduras, among other things, is a failing state, massive corruption. You got gangs who are telling families that if a 10-year-old does not join their gang, their family is going to be killed. What we have got to do on day one and invite the presidents and the leadership of Central America and Mexico together. This is a hemispheric problem.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

Energy

“Ban fracking and new fossil fuel infrastructure and keep oil, gas, and coal in the ground by banning fossil fuel leases on public lands.”

“End exports of coal, natural gas, and crude oil.”

Campaign website

Human Rights

“Work with pro-democracy forces around the world to build societies that work for and protect all people. In the United States, Europe, and elsewhere, democracy is under threat by forces of intolerance, corruption, and authoritarianism.”

Campaign website

Iran

“I will do everything I can to prevent a war with Iran, which would be far worse than [the] disastrous war with Iraq.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

Yemen & Saudi Arabia

“I helped lead the effort for the first time to utilize the War Powers Act to get the United States out of this Saudi led intervention in Yemen, which is the most horrific humanitarian disaster on Earth.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

Trade

“Under no circumstance would we rejoin the Trans-Pacific Partnership under a Sanders Administration.”

July 30, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

Defense

“I don’t think we have to spend $750 billion a year on the military when we don’t even know who our enemy is.”

Sept. 12, 2019, at the third Democratic debate

Energy & Climate Change

“Fossil fuel executives should be criminally prosecuted for the destruction they have knowingly caused.”

Aug. 22, 2019, on Twitter

Pete Buttigieg greets guests after announcing his presidential campaign in South Bend, Indiana, on April 14.
Pete Buttigieg greets guests after announcing his presidential campaign in South Bend, Indiana, on April 14. Scott Olson/Getty Images

Pete Buttigieg

Mayor of South Bend, Indiana

Afghanistan

“Endless war cannot continue. And if you look at Afghanistan or a number of other places where we are operating, with boots on the ground, we’re operating on an authorization for use of military force from 2001. … We don’t want to put ourselves in a position where another generation finds itself being deployed again because of another attack, but simply staying there infinitely with no plan is not going to work. And neither is leaving with no plan.”

Jan. 23, 2019, while announcing his 2020 exploratory committee

“A negotiated peace agreement in which we maintain a relevant special operations/intelligence presence but bring home our ground troops is the best way to ensure that Afghanistan never again becomes a base for terrorist attacks against the United States or its allies.”

July 30, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

China

“We’ve got to recognize that the China challenge really is a serious one. This is not something to dismiss or wave away. And if you look at what China is doing, they’re using technology for the perfection of dictatorship. But their fundamental economic model isn’t going to change because of some tariffs.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

“Where necessary and feasible, we should seek cooperation with Beijing, such as in addressing climate disruption, maintaining strategic stability, combatting terrorism, and managing conflict through international peacekeeping. But the United States must defend our fundamental values, core interests, and critical alliances, and accept that this will often entail friction with China.”

July 30, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

Climate Change

“We must treat climate change as the existential security challenge it is … America can rise to this national challenge [with] an approach that should include a carbon tax and dividend to reorient our economy around a more sensible rewards system. It includes quadrupling American R&D to at least 25 billion dollars a year, and leading the way on research into renewable energy, energy storage, and carbon storage.”

June 11, 2019, in a speech at Indiana University

Human Rights

“It is hard to stand for human rights abroad when we are turning away asylum seekers at our own borders.”

June 11, 2019, in a speech at Indiana University

Immigration

“We don’t need a wall from sea to shining sea. What we need is to manage immigration and our border humanely, securely, and effectively.”

June 11, 2019, in a speech at Indiana University

Iran

“Preventing the spread of nuclear weapons should remain a core tenet of our global leadership. For this reason, I will rejoin our international partners and recommit the United States to the Iran nuclear deal. Whatever its imperfections, this was perhaps as close to a true ‘art of the deal’ as it gets.”

June 11, 2019, in a speech at Indiana University

“I would take the agreement [the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action] as a floor, not a ceiling. I would revive P5+1 diplomacy and direct US-Iran dialogue at the appropriate levels and would want to pursue follow-on agreements that extend the timeframe of certain nuclear restrictions, cover Iran’s missile program, and address its role in regional conflicts, all in return for targeted sanctions relief.”

July 30, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

Iraq

“We must remember that the lesson of the Iraq disaster is not that there is anything wrong with standing for American values, but rather that any action in the name of such values must be strategic, legitimate, and constrained by the premise that we only use force when left with no alternative.”

June 11, 2019, in a speech at Indiana University

Israel and Palestine

“A two-state solution that achieves legitimate Palestinian aspirations and meets Israel’s security needs remains the only viable way forward, and it will be our policy to support such a solution actively. And if Prime Minister Netanyahu makes good on his promise to annex West Bank settlements, he should know that a President Buttigieg would take steps to make sure that American taxpayers won’t help foot the bill.”

June 11, 2019, in a speech at Indiana University

International Institutions

“Seventy years after the founding of NATO, we must repair the strained relationships with our European allies—not because we owe them or they owe us, but because America is more effective when we work with strong and able partners, and when those partners can trust America’s word.”

June 11, 2019, in a speech at Indiana University

North Korea

“You will not see me exchanging love letters on White House letterhead with a brutal dictator who starves and murders his own people. But you will see my administration work to create the conditions that would make it possible to welcome North Korea into the international community.”

June 11, 2019, in a speech at Indiana University

“I would support an initial freeze agreement that would have North Korea cease production of fissile material and end nuclear and missile testing, all verified by international inspectors, in exchange for targeted sanctions relief, which could be reversed if the North Koreans did not uphold their end of the bargain. After this initial deal, we would need to proceed toward dismantling facilities and then the weapons themselves.”

July 30, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

Russia

“Russia throws its weight around abroad—most egregiously, of course, their unacceptable interference in our elections, which weakened America both by helping to elect an unstable administration and by eroding confidence in our democracy itself. We must be ready to deter such behavior in the future, through diplomatic, economic, and even cyber tools and information operations.”

June 11, 2019, in a speech at Indiana University

Saudi Arabia

“We will remain open to working with a regime like the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for the benefit of the American people. But we can no longer sell out our deepest values for the sake of fossil fuel access and lucrative business deals. If we recognize that the torture and execution of dissidents is wrong, then we should have the courage to say that it is wrong on both sides of the Gulf.”

June 11, 2019, in a speech at Indiana University

Defense

“When I am president, an authorization for the use of military force will have a built-in three-year sunset. Congress will be required to vote, and a president will be required to go to Congress to seek an authorization.”

Sept. 12, 2019, at the third Democratic debate

Yemen & Saudi Arabia

The United States must halt military support for the Saudi-led campaign in Yemen. The brutal war has brought the country to the verge of famine and killed tens of thousands of civilians.”

July 30, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

U.S. Senator Kamala Harris launches her presidential campaign in Oakland, California, on Jan. 27.
U.S. Senator Kamala Harris launches her presidential campaign in Oakland, California, on Jan. 27. Mason Trinca/Getty Images

Kamala Harris

U.S. senator from California

Afghanistan

“I believe we should bring back our troops from Afghanistan, but I also believe that we need to have a presence there in terms of supporting what the leaders of Afghanistan want to do in terms of having peace in that region and certainly suppressing any possibility of ISIS or any other terrorist organization from gaining any steam.”

June 19, 2019, interview with the New York Times

Russia

Foreign powers are “infecting the White House like malware.”

Jan. 27, 2019, at campaign launch

Climate Change

“It’s a climate crisis. It represents an existential threat to us as a species. And the fact that we have a president of the United States who has embraced science fiction over science fact will be to our collective peril. … That is why I support a Green New Deal. It is why I believe on day one and as president will reenter us in the Paris agreement, because we have to take these issues seriously.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

“America is the largest single greenhouse gas emitter in history and we have an obligation to be a leader in the fight against climate change. As president, I will immediately rejoin the Paris Agreement and set a path forward to exceed those goals.”

Sept. 6, 2019, on Twitter

Immigration

“As president, while I fight for Congress to pass 21st Century immigration reform, I won’t wait. I’ll take action to lift barriers Dreamers face to pursuing legal status and put them on a meaningful path to citizenship.”

June 12, 2019, in immigration plan

“I will immediately by executive action reinstate DACA status and DACA protection to those young people. … I will also immediately put in place immediate process for reviewing the cases for asylum. I will release children from cages.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

Iran

“I would also look toward expanding [the Iran nuclear deal]. … To be honest with you, I would like to see it also cover ballistic missile testing.”

June 18, 2019, in an MSNBC interview

“I believe that we need to get back into the Iran nuclear deal. I would strengthen it. I would include ballistic missile testing.”

June 23, 2019, in an interview with CBS’s Face the Nation

Israel and Palestine

“I believe that the only viable resolution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the only way Israel can remain a Jewish and democratic state is two states for two peoples living side by side. Palestinians should be able to govern themselves in their own state in peace and dignity just as Israelis deserve a secure homeland for the Jewish people.”

“I believe Israel should never be a partisan issue. I will do everything in my power to ensure broad and bipartisan support for Israel’s security and right to self-defense. That is why I strongly support America’s security assistance to Israel, and I am committed to strengthen the American-Israeli security and defense relationship.”

June 3, 2019, in a message to the American Jewish Committee

North Korea

“Like many, we are deeply concerned about the potential consequences of a preemptive military strike on North Korea and the risks of miscalculation and retaliation. … without congressional authorization a preventative or preemptive U.S. military strike would lack either a Constitutional basis or legal authority.”

Feb. 5, 2018, letter to Trump with other Democratic senators

“This President should take the North Korean nuclear threat and its crimes against humanity seriously. This is not a photo-op. Our security and our values are at stake.”

June 30, 2019, on Twitter

“I guarantee you I won’t be exchanging love letters with Kim Jong-un.”

Aug. 21, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

“I would consider targeted sanctions relief to improve the lives of the North Korean people if the regime were to take serious, verifiable steps to roll back its nuclear program.”

Aug. 21, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

Russia

“I think we’re all clear that Russia attacked our country during the 2016 election and that they are continuing to attack us today. Russia not only attacked one of our most sacred democratic values, which is a free and fair election, but also, I believe, our very American identity.”

Aug. 1, 2018, in the Senate Intelligence Committee 

Saudi Arabia

“Saudi Arabia must be held accountable for Jamal Khashoggi’s murder and for its human rights abuses in Yemen. The last thing we should do is sell them billions in weapons. That’s why this week I voted to block the sale of weapons to Saudi Arabia.”

June 22, 2019, on Twitter

“The United States and Saudi Arabia still have mutual areas of interest, such as counterterrorism, where the Saudis have been strong partners. And we should continue to coordinate on that front. But we need to fundamentally reevaluate our relationship with Saudi Arabia, using our leverage to stand up for American values and interests.”

Aug. 21, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

Syria & Iraq & Afghanistan

“As president, she’ll end the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and protracted military engagements in places like Syria. But she’ll do so responsibly – by consulting our Generals and Ambassadors, not via tweet.”

Campaign website

Trade

“I don’t support [the Trans-Pacific Partnership] in its current form. While I support finding ways to increase exports for U.S. goods and expanding trade opportunities, I will oppose any trade deal that doesn’t look out for the best interest of workers and risks invalidating California’s landmark climate change and environmental laws.”

Oct. 14, 2016, in a Los Angeles Times interview

“I would not have voted for NAFTA, because I believe that we can do a better job to protect American workers.”

May 12, 2019, on CNN’s State of the Union

“I call it the Trump trade tax. … Yet again we are going to have a situation where American consumers are going to have to pay a price for this administration’s trade policy.”

June 5, 2019, in an interview with McClatchy

Trade & China

“We have to hold China accountable. They steal our products, including our intellectual property. They dump substandard products into our economy. … We also need to partner with China on climate and the crisis that that presents. We need to partner with China on the issue of North Korea.”

Sept. 12, 2019, at the third Democratic debate

Human Rights & China

“Under my administration, we will cooperate with China on global issues like climate change, but we won’t allow human rights abuses to go unchecked.”

Aug. 21, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

Andrew Yang speaks during a rally in New York City on May 14.
Andrew Yang speaks during a rally in New York City on May 14. Drew Angerer/Getty Images

Andrew Yang

Entrepreneur

Afghanistan

“My hope would be that there would be no American troops in Afghanistan at the end of my first term, but it’s impossible to know that for sure given that the reality on the ground might lead us to have to have people there if we can accomplish goals in that time frame.”

June 19, 2019, in an interview with the New York Times

China

“There are aspects of Chinese behavior that are deeply problematic—their piracy of intellectual property. … They have taken advantage of frameworks to their own benefit, and we haven’t had some of the same benefits. But China is in the midst of an historic increase in prosperity, and that is not something America should be threatened by at all.”

June 18, 2019, in an interview with Hill.TV

“I’m a cult hero in China already. The Chinese government took three days to think about it, and then decided they really liked this—the Asian guy running for president. So they put my face all over Sina, and Weibo, and WeChat, and then the rest of it.”

Feb. 15, 2019, in a speech at Harvard University

“I think China’s being set up as the antagonist by the U.S. If we can see China’s rise as complementary, that would be the best hope. That, unfortunately, is not what I think is the American tendency. But if I become president, hopefully I can make it so.”

Feb. 15, 2019, in a speech at Harvard University

Trade & China

“So, we need to—to crack down on Chinese malfeasance in the trade relationship, but the tariffs and the trade war are the wrong way to go.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

Climate Change

“I’m for carbon fee and dividend, rejoining the Paris accord, investing hundreds of billions in a more resilient infrastructure. I’m for the spirit of the Green New Deal. … I would also invest in carbon capture and sequestration and geoengineering measures, because, in my mind, unfortunately at this point we either have to expect the worst or start trying to counteract the worst effects.”

March 27, 2019, in an interview with CNET

“Climate change is an existential threat to our way of life, humans and penguins alike. And to the extent I ever suggested I am not fully committed, then I conveyed the wrong message. … The last four years have been the four warmest years in recorded history, you don’t need to be a genius or a scientist to say that climate change is picking up.”

April 28, 2019, at a town hall in Des Moines, Iowa

Energy

“Nuclear isn’t a perfect solution, but it’s a solid solution for now, and a technology we should invest in as we move to a future powered primarily by renewable energy.”

Campaign website

Iran

“I think it was a mistake that we withdrew from the agreement … I would rejoin that agreement, which is multilateral. … What we can’t do is saber-rattle and make it so that the tensions in the region escalate to armed conflict.”

June 19, 2019, in an interview with WBUR

Defense

“As President, I will … Sign a repeal to the [Authorization for Use of Military Force], returning the authority to declare war to Congress, and refuse to engage in anything other than emergency military activity without the express consent of Congress. Regularly audit the Department of Defense. Focus our federal budget on fixing problems at home instead of spending trillions of dollars abroad.”

Campaign website

Immigration & Human Rights

“We need to drastically increase funding for asylum courts so that we can hear these cases in a timely manner. We must treat asylum-seekers in a humane manner, not keeping them in cages or separated from family members.”

“We need to work with our allies in the Northern Triangle in order to improve the situation on the ground. We need to help them build their economies up and diversify them. We need to help the government combat violence in these areas, which is cited by over 20% of migrants as being the cause for their desire to leave their homes.”

June 2019, in an interview with Amnesty International USA

Immigration

“We should not pretend that it is remotely feasible to round up and deport more than 12 million undocumented immigrants without collapsing regional economies and separating families. We need to implement real policies and solutions. … We need humane policies for immigration, not distractions.”

June 24, 2019, on Twitter

Saudi Arabia

“First, we need to stop getting involved with countries that are carrying out these atrocities. One thing I’d do is end all aid to Saudi Arabia and the UAE as a result of their actions in Yemen. … As many of the governments engaged in these persecutions are heavily reliant on oil, we should also move towards renewables so that we stop subsidizing their actions.”

June 2019, in an interview with Amnesty International USA

Russia

“I just want to agree that I think Russia is our biggest geopolitical threat, because they’ve been hacking our democracy successfully. They’ve been laughing their asses off about it for the last couple of years, and we should focus on that before we start worrying about other threats.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

Beto O'Rourke kicks off his campaign for president in Austin, Texas, on March 30.
Beto O'Rourke kicks off his campaign for president in Austin, Texas, on March 30. Gary Miller/Getty Images

Beto O'Rourke

Former U.S. congressman from Texas

Iraq & Afghanistan

“We need to end the wars that began, in the case of Afghanistan, nearly 18 years ago, in the case of Iraq, nearly 28 years ago. Bring these service members back to their home country, to their communities, support them as they transition into civilian life. We have to decide that we will not achieve our foreign-policy goals on the backs of 18- and 19- and 20-year-old service members who are deployed in dozens of countries, half a world away, right now. We have to begin to bring these wars to a close and address legitimate foreign-policy concerns and goals through our diplomacy, and through working with other countries in the region.”

June 19, 2019, in a New York Times interview

China

“If we’re going to … be successful in this standoff with China … I’d much rather do this with friends than go it alone, as we are right now. And to do that, we’re going to need the European Union. We’re going to need Canada and Mexico. We’re going to need our traditional friends and allies.”

May 2019, in an interview in New Hampshire

Trade & China

“Trump knows full well how destructive his trade wars have been. They amount to one of the biggest middle-class tax hikes in history. But even with so many farmers crippled by tariffs, drowning in debt, and some farms still underwater, our President has refused to throw them a meaningful lifeline. … And the more time I spend listening in rural communities, the clearer it becomes: China isn’t paying the price for this reckless trade war. We are.”

May 21, 2019, in an op-ed in CNN

Climate Change

“Climate change is the greatest threat we face—one which will test our country, our democracy, and every single one of us. The stakes are clear: We are living in a transformed reality, where our longstanding inaction has not only impacted our climate but led to a growing emergency that has already started to sap our economic prosperity and public health—worsening inequality and threatening our safety and security.”

Campaign website

“Day one, reenter the Paris climate agreement. On that same day, make sure that we lead the world in going well beyond the Paris climate agreement. Ensure that we regulate and enforce reduced greenhouse gas emissions from methane and then get to net zero on public lands by ensuring we have no new oil and gas leases on federally protected lands and offshore areas that are now being drilled today.”

Sept. 4, 2019, at CNN’s Climate Crisis Town Hall

“No new oil and gas leases offshore. No new oil and gas leases on federally protected lands. All existing leases will reflect the true costs of pollution, climate change, and carbon. I think that’s the best way to keep that oil and gas in the ground and make sure that we fully free ourselves from a dependence on fossil fuels.”

Sept. 4, 2019, at CNN’s Climate Crisis Town Hall

Immigration

“I would never again separate another family when they come here at their most vulnerable and desperate moment. And I will make every effort, and we will spare no expense, to reunite those families who have already been separated. And then let’s do this together—and let’s not do it as Democrats or independents or Republicans, but let’s do this as Americans. Let’s rewrite our immigration laws in our own image. Let’s reflect our values, our reality, the best interests and traditions of this country that’s comprised of immigrants and asylum-seekers and refugees.”

May 21, 2019, in a CNN town hall

Iran

“Iran deal best path to keep Iran from having nuclear weapons. Decertifying undermines this, creates uncertainty, separates us from allies.”

Oct. 13, 2017, on Twitter

Iraq

“President Trump is escalating tensions, is provoking yet another war in the Middle East where we find ourselves already engaged in war in so many countries: in Iraq, in Syria, in Yemen, not too far from there in Libya and in Afghanistan. So, we don’t need another war.”

May 25, 2019, in an interview with CBS’ “Face the Nation”

Terrorism & Immigration

“We’ve conflated the war on terror, the war on drugs, with immigration. This has led to mass deportations & militarization at a time of record safety on the U.S. border. False fear is cynically stoked to harm those who pose no threat to this country.”

Feb. 6, 2019, on Twitter

Trade

“The disastrous tariffs Trump has levied have an impact. So do these trade wars he’s carelessly entered us into. Farmers, manufacturers, entire communities of Americans across this country are being hurt and are paying the price.”

June 7, 2019, on Twitter

Saudi Arabia

“A constructive US-Saudi relationship is worth preserving, but only if Riyadh is willing to engage in a significant course correction.”

Aug. 11, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

Defense & Afghanistan

“We’ve satisfied the reasons for our involvement in Afghanistan in the first place. And it’s time to bring those service members back home from Afghanistan but also from Iraq, also from Yemen and Somalia and Libya and Syria.”

July 30, 2019, at the second Democratic debate

Cory Booker speaks during a campaign stop at the African American Museum of Iowa in Cedar Rapids on Feb. 8.
Cory Booker speaks during a campaign stop at the African American Museum of Iowa in Cedar Rapids on Feb. 8. Scott Olson/Getty Images

Cory Booker

U.S. senator from New Jersey

Afghanistan

“From my series of meetings and briefings in Afghanistan, it was clear that a diplomatic surge is needed in the country to further the efforts of peace and reconciliation. … I agree with our Ambassador and military leaders in Afghanistan that there is no military solution to the conflict.”

June 4, 2018, in a news release

“We need to bring our American troops home. We cannot have forever wars in this nation, and this is one area where I’m going to be determined to bring American troops home. … My driving force will be to bring our troops home safe and sound under the conditions that will lead toward peace and security in that region.”

June 19, 2019, in a New York Times interview

China

“The Chinese have been taking advantage of this country and other nations on the planet Earth. They do not fight fair. They steal our intellectual property. They force the transfer of technology. … They unfairly subsidize industries to undercut the market for other countries. … Please give me the chance to be your president—I’m going to show you how to take on China and win. And I’m not going to do it by turning my back on our allies.”

May 12, 2019, in a speech in Laconia, New Hampshire

“If I am president, whenever the United States meets with China, human rights will be a focus of the conversation.”

July 30, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

Climate Change

“The first question I was asked in Iowa was about #GreenNewDeal. The hard truth is climate change has imperiled our planet—it’s going to take bold action now to save it including dramatic investment in green energy that will create the jobs of the future. We can do this.”

Feb. 8, 2019, on Twitter

Energy

“If we want to move quickly toward a carbon-free future, nuclear has to be part of the equation.”

March 23, 2019, in a Washington Examiner interview

“At a time when we should be focused on swiftly transitioning to a clean energy future, we should not be creating a foundation for further fossil fuel extraction that puts our economy and environment at grave risk.”

March 14, 2019, in a news release

Immigration

“We need to have an immigration plan that has pathways to citizenship and doesn’t create such broad-scale fear.”

June 23, 2019, in an MSNBC interview

“When people come to this country, they do not leave their human rights at the border. … We cannot surrender our values and think that we are going to get border security. We actually will lose security and our values. We must fight for both.”

June 26, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

Iran & International Institutions

“The President’s announcement is nothing less than an abdication of American leadership that jeopardizes our national security, makes the world less safe, and increases the prospect of Iran developing a nuclear weapon … an imperfect deal with years remaining to conduct further diplomacy was and remains better than a nuclear-armed Iran.”

“From walking away from a historic global climate agreement, to denigrating our closest allies in NATO, to now reversing course on the Iran deal, President Trump’s actions have been detrimental to global stability and maintaining peace in the world, and have left the American people worse off and at greater risk.”

May 8, 2018, in a news release

Iran

“For months, this Administration has led us on a march to war, with no off ramp. … To be absolutely clear, the 2001 AUMF does not grant the President authority to strike Iran — for that, he must go to Congress. Any military action in Iran that circumvents Congressional approval is a blatant and unconstitutional power grab.”

June 21, 2019, in a news release

Russia

“It’s stunning that the United States of America was attacked. … And this president of United States has done what I consider is tantamount to malfeasance by not answering that attack. Putin respects strength, and we’re lying down in the face of ongoing attacks.”

Jan. 31, 2018, in an NPR interview

“It’s a fact that Russia attacked our democracy in 2016 to influence the presidential election in favor of Trump. Today Trump sided with Putin over our own intelligence & law enforcement officials & blamed the US for Russia’s attacks. Every American should be outraged.”

July 16, 2019, on Twitter

Yemen & Saudi Arabia

“Now is not the time to arm Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates and act as a complicit partner in the harm inflicted on thousands of innocent Yemeni civilians. Instead, it is time to hold both countries accountable for the atrocities they have committed. … This latest end-run around Congress illustrates the worst of the Administration’s foreign policy impulses — a disregard for the checks and balances of our democracy, a desire to kowtow to autocrats, and a refusal to stand up for the world’s most vulnerable populations.”

June 20, 2019, in a news release

Syria

“I’m deeply concerned that President Trump continues to conduct military operations without any comprehensive strategy or the necessary congressional authorization.”

April 13, 2018, in a news release

Defense

“I will bring our troops home, and I will bring them home as quickly as possible, but I will not set during a campaign an artificial deadline.”

July 31, 2019, at the second Democratic debate

Saudi Arabia

“We need a reset in our relationship with Saudi Arabia, starting with an end to U.S. arms sales and transfer of nuclear technology.”

July 30, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

Amy Klobuchar speaks during a campaign stop in Mason City, Iowa, on Feb. 16.
Amy Klobuchar speaks during a campaign stop in Mason City, Iowa, on Feb. 16. Scott Olson/Getty Images

Amy Klobuchar

U.S. senator from Minnesota

Afghanistan

“We have been there longer than some of our young people have been on this earth.”

June 19, 2019, in a New York Times interview

Trade & China

“Glad that Department of Commerce announced tarrifs this week on steel imports from China & Japan. U.S. workers need level playing field.”

May 20, 2016, on Twitter

Iran & China

“Two threats—economic threat, China. Our major threat right now is what’s going on in the Middle East with Iran if we don’t get our act together.”

First Dem debate on June 26, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

Climate Change

“I believe in science. And that inviting climate change deniers onto your National Security Council is dangerous. We need to get back into the International Climate Change Agreement. Now.”

June 15, 2019, on Twitter

Immigration

“[Trump] has gut-punched us on that a number of times. We have the will to put the money at the border for better security, and combine it with some sensible reforms, including things like a path to citizenship, things like making sure that we have workers on our fields and in our factories that we need. But he has chosen instead to weaponize this, to politicize it.”

Nov. 25, 2018, on ABC’s This Week

“Senator Klobuchar will end all Administration discussions to cut off direct assistance funding for Northern Triangle countries of Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala, recognizing that the cuts present a serious risk to our national security and undermine efforts to address the underlying conditions driving migration to the United States.”

June 18, 2019, in her plan for her first 100 days as president

Iran

“The Administration’s reckless policies increase the risk of armed conflict&isolate the U.S. The President was wrong to withdraw from the Iran Agreement and he can’t draw us into war w/out authorization from Congress. Acting alone makes America less safe.”

May 14, 2019, on Twitter

The 2015 nuclear agreement imposed verifiable limits on Iran’s nuclear program that would prevent it from building a nuclear weapon. Senator Klobuchar will negotiate to bring the United States back into the nuclear agreement with the goal of avoiding war and a nuclear-armed Iran.”

June 18, 2019, in her plan for her first 100 days as president

International Institutions

“The consequences of berating our allies: As Trump rattles NATO, 42 percent of Germans now want U.S. troops out of the country.”

June 12, 2018, on Twitter

Russia

“We now know for certain that Russia invaded our democracy. They didn’t use bombs, jets or tanks. Instead, they planned a mission to undermine the foundation of our electoral system. … We need to take action now to prevent a recurrence of 2016—or something even worse.”

May 9, 2019, in an op-ed in the Los Angeles Times

“In 2017, Congress passed legislation providing additional authorities for the President to impose sanctions on Russia in response to its election interference and other aggressive actions. The Trump Administration has resisted full implementation of these sanctions. Senator Klobuchar will use these authorities to the fullest extent possible to impose serious costs on the Putin regime and its enablers for hostile acts against the United States and our allies.”

June 18, 2019, in her plan for her first 100 days as president

Yemen & Saudi Arabia

“Today, the Senate spoke with a clear voice opposing U.S. support for the Saudi-led coalition’s operations in Yemen. We refused to turn a blind eye to civilian casualties or the ongoing humanitarian crisis that continues to devastate Yemen and its people.”

March 13, 2019, in a Senate news release

Saudi Arabia & Human Rights

“There’s no confusion here. No moral equivocation. Jamal Khashoggi was the target of a ‘deliberate, premeditated execution,’ and the Saudi government must be accountable at the highest levels.”

June 19, 2019, on Twitter

Syria

“Using chemical weapons is an atrocity. These missile strikes targeted the air base used to launch the chemical attack, and it is right to show Assad that he will be held accountable. Moving forward, the Administration must consult with Congress.”

April 7, 2017, in a Senate news release

Terrorism

“You have a situation right now, where you look at what’s happened in places like that synagogue in Pittsburgh, when you look at the bombing attempts on leaders, including President Obama, in our nation. We have white supremacists, a resurgence of this kind of anger, and the Ku Klux Klan. And it just keeps getting worse. … And so I think that our country needs to take this just as seriously as we do other forms of terrorism.”

March 17, 2019, on NBC’s Meet the Press

Julián Castro announces his candidacy for president in San Antonio, Texas, on Jan. 12.
Julián Castro announces his candidacy for president in San Antonio, Texas, on Jan. 12. Edward A. Ornelas/Getty Images

Julián Castro

Former secretary of housing and urban development

China

“You want to outcompete China? We should start by building alliances around the world, not tearing them down. #SOTU”

Feb. 5, 2019, on Twitter

Russia

“I bet he’s hoping they’re going to do it again in 2020. … It’s incumbent upon Congress to help ensure that we do everything that we can to get to the truth that the Mueller report tried to lay out and also hold this administration accountable to make sure that we do take steps to secure our 2020 election.”

May 3, 2019, in an MSNBC interview

Climate Change

“The harder part is, I believe, that we need to invest in a big way in sustainability. … I like the concept of the Green New Deal, for instance, because I don’t think that we have to choose between protecting our planet and creating jobs and opportunity.”

May 27, 2019, at a New Hampshire meet-and-greet

“The first thing that I would do … is sign an executive order recommitting us to the Paris climate accord.”

June 26, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

Iran

“The issue that I have with this administration is that they seem to be hellbent on moving us toward war with Iran.”

June 13, 2019, at a Fox News town hall

“The Iran Nuclear Agreement was a landmark achievement that prevented a nuclear-armed Iran for more than 3 years. If Iran continues to comply with the terms of the agreement as determined by the intelligence community, I will re-enter the U.S. into the #JCPOA as President.”

March 20, 2019, on Twitter

North Korea & Iran

“Instead of embracing that and making sure, as all of the intelligence agencies said, that Iran continued to abide by the terms of the agreement, this president haphazardly came in and said, you know what, we’re going to throw that out the window. … And it sends a signal to the rest of the world, including places like North Korea, that even if we engage in diplomatic efforts and move toward some sort of agreement that would keep them from developing further their nuclear capacity, that we’re not going to honor it.”

June 13, 2019, at a Fox News town hall

International Institutions

“I believe that today the greatest threat to our national security is the fact that this president … is damaging the relationships we’ve had in place in the post-World War II era—whether it’s NATO or other alliances with individual countries—that have kept us safer.”

Jan. 6, 2019, in an ABC News interview

Terrorism

“Well, we have seen that there’s this underworld out there, in the internet and social media, where people are getting radicalized, right. That’s often a word unfortunately that has only been used when we talk about folks in the Middle East or Muslims … whole groups have been slandered, but it is accurate to say that several of these young men who have gone in and shot up, whether it’s a church or nightclub or other circumstances, here and also in other parts of the world, have been radicalized.”

April 5, 2019, in a Pod Save America interview

Trade

“I believe that the American worker should always come first. I also don’t think that we should summarily say no to striking trade agreements if they make sense for workers and for American business. … We have this global economy that already is established, and we’re competing in. It’s not realistic to think that we’re going to withdraw from that wholly. … I disagree with people who say we’re going to close off trade — I don’t agree with that.”

Feb. 2, 2019, in a New York Magazine interview

Human Rights

“I see housing as a human right.”

June 17, 2019, in a Los Angeles Times interview

Immigration

 “We need a pathway to full and equal citizenship for the 11 million people living here peacefully, and contributing to our culture and our economy.”

“I am calling for a 21st century Marshall Plan for Central America, focusing on stabilizing the nations that are the main sources of migration to the United States.”

April 1, 2019, in a Medium post

“My plan also includes getting rid of Section 1325 of Immigration and Nationality Act … when somebody comes across the border, not to criminalize desperation. To treat that as a civil violation.”

June 26, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

Afghanistan

“I recognize, like a lot of people, that we do need to withdraw from our engagements there. The question is how we do that. I disagree with this administration’s haphazard way of announcing and going about withdrawal. We need to withdraw in a way that is orderly, that respects our allies, that leaves the region as stable as we possibly can, given the circumstances.”

June 19, 2019, in a New York Times interview

Syria

“I think that many folks recognize that it was time for us to pull out of Syria. However, here’s the thing … both for our own sake, for the sake of our troops, for the sake of our allies, once you’re there, you have to actually have a solid plan for how you’re going to withdraw.”

Dec. 23, 2018, in a Meet the Press interview

Tulsi Gabbard talks to veterans during a campaign rally in Iowa City on April 16.
Tulsi Gabbard talks to veterans during a campaign rally in Iowa City on April 16. Jeremy Hogan/SOPA Images/LightRocket via Getty Images

Tulsi Gabbard

U.S. congresswoman from Hawaii

Afghanistan

“I will end the wasteful regime-change wars that have taken such a toll on our troops and on the American people.”

June 19, 2019, in an interview with the New York Times

“We can’t keep U.S. troops deployed to Afghanistan thinking that we’re going to somehow squash this Taliban that has been there, and every other country that’s tried it failed.”

June 26, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

North Korea & China

“Trump’s trade-war against China has damaged, not helped, our economy, has undermined our efforts to denuclearize North Korea, and has strengthened the hand of Chinese anti-American militarists.”

Feb. 5, 2019, on Twitter

Climate Change

“President Trump’s decision today to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, making us just one of three countries in the world not to participate, is short-sighted and irresponsible.”

June 1, 2017, in a news release

“We cannot wait any longer to act on climate change. … We must pass my bill, the #OFFAct to protect our people and our planet by transitioning to a 100% clean energy economy by 2035.”

Dec. 20, 2017, in a news release

“I support the carbon neutrality goals of the Green New Deal and the awareness it has brought across the country on the critical issues of energy independence and the climate crisis, however, I do not support ‘leaving the door open’ to nuclear power unless and until there is a permanent solution to the problem of nuclear waste.”

Spring 2019, interview with the Washington Post

Immigration

“The Trump Administration’s use of children as pawns in the immigration debate is despicable and must end immediately. We obviously need comprehensive immigration reform.”

June 18, 2018, on Twitter

Saudi Arabia & Iran

“Netanyahu and Saudi Arabia want to drag the United States into war with Iran, and Trump is submitting to their wishes. The cost in money and lives will be catastrophic.”

April 9, 2019, on Twitter

Iraq & Iran

“Intel officials & politicians led us into Iraq war. Now Trump’s using the same playbook to lead our country into war with Iran. The cost in lives & treasure will be infinitely greater than the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, & Syria, and will undermine our ntnl security. #NoIranWar”

May 20, 2019, on Twitter

Iran

“Here we go again! The US sending more troops to Middle East for what will be disastrous war with Iran. To prevent Trump and future presidents from waging war illegally (without Congress approval) we must sign my No More Presidential Wars Act.”

June 18, 2019, on Twitter

Saudi Arabia

“Hey @realdonaldtrump: being Saudi Arabia’s bitch is not ‘America First.’”

Nov. 21, 2018, on Twitter

Syria

“There have been reports showing that chemical weapons have been used in Syria both by the Syrian government as well as different terrorist groups on the ground in Syria. The skepticism and the questions that I raised were very specific around incidents that the Trump administration was trying to use as an excuse to launch a U.S. military attack in Syria.”

March 10, 2019, in a CNN town hall

“Assad is not the enemy of the United States, because Syria does not pose a direct threat to the United States. … Our troops have not gone to Syria to wage yet another costly, destructive regime-change war. And many troops I hear from express frustration at the fact that our country continues to wage senseless, costly regime-change wars followed by nation-building missions, leading to situations like we see in Afghanistan.”

Feb. 6, 2019, in an interview with MSNBC

Trade

“For too long, hardworking Americans have suffered, lost their jobs and livelihoods as a consequence of large trade agreements like NAFTA, while multinational corporations and special interests continue to make record profits. … My colleagues and I are urging the Trump administration to fully include Congress as they renegotiate NAFTA to ensure it is a transparent process and that they reach a fair deal for all Americans.”

Aug. 16, 2017, in a news release

Yemen & Saudi Arabia

“Right now the United States continues to support Saudi Arabia’s genocidal war in Yemen. This support has been ongoing since 2015 and yet has never been authorized by Congress. It must end now. … This has created the worst humanitarian disaster in the world.”

April 4, 2019, in a news release

Michael Bennet speaks to guests during a campaign stop in Sioux City, Iowa, on May 18.
Michael Bennet speaks to guests during a campaign stop in Sioux City, Iowa, on May 18. Scott Olson/Getty Images

Michael Bennet

U.S. senator from Colorado

Afghanistan

“If you’re a kid in college or you’re 18 or 19 years old, you’ve only known us being at war. We’ve spent $5.6 trillion in the Middle East. It’s time for us to come home from Afghanistan.”

June 19, 2019, in a New York Times interview

Trade & China

“I think that, first of all, the biggest threat to our national security right now is Russia, not China. … I think the president’s been right to push back on China, but he’s done it in completely the wrong way. We should mobilize the entire rest of the world, who all have a shared interest in pushing back on China’s mercantilist trade policies, and I think we can do that.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

Energy & Climate Change

“Concern about melting ice caps and endangered species is justified, but it has little resonance beyond our cities and coasts. On the other hand, every farmer and rancher in Colorado understands that persistent droughts and wildfires directly threaten their business and way of life. Likewise, many in Colorado know that warming temperatures endanger our skiing, fly fishing and outdoor recreation. If we ignore these economic realities in our climate debate, we will struggle to break the gridlock in Washington.”

Nov. 5, 2017, in an op-ed in USA Today

“America’s Climate Change Plan will reduce emissions in line with the most aggressive targets set by the world’s scientists and achieve 100 percent clean, net-zero emissions as soon as possible, and no later than 2050. Our plan will drive economic growth for the 21st century and create millions of high-paying jobs. Our plan intentionally engages a broad coalition of Americans to ensure that our approach to climate change not only is sufficiently ambitious, but will endure across American elections and administrations. To combat this crisis as fast as possible, we must reignite America’s ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit in a shared mission.”

May 20, 2019, in his climate plan

Immigration

“When I see these kids at the border, I see my mom, because I know she sees herself, because she was separated from her parents for years during the Holocaust in Poland. And for Donald Trump to be doing what he’s doing to children and their families at the borders … [turns] the border of the United States into a symbol of nativist hostility that the whole world is looking at.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

Iran

“Since taking office, President Trump has produced no strategy to counter Iran’s malevolent activities across the Middle East, all of which would be more dangerous if backed by a nuclear weapon. U.S. intelligence has assessed Iran is in compliance with the JCPOA [Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action], and the President has offered no alternative path forward to prevent Iran from obtaining nuclear capabilities. The President’s abandonment of the agreement is reckless.”

May 8, 2018, in a Senate news release

North Korea

“North Korea’s nuclear program poses a grave threat to the international community. Any American president deserves support for pursuing a diplomatic approach toward the complete, verifiable, and irreversible denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula. But North Korea’s track record requires all parties to be cautious about any agreements made by its leader. Comprehensive and real denuclearization will require sustained attention and true commitments.”

June 13, 2018, in a Senate news release

Russia

“At this point it’s obvious and clear to almost everybody who’s observing this that the Russians were working hard to figure out how to elect Donald Trump and defeat Hillary Clinton, and made us vulnerable to their dastardly tactics. And we need to make sure that doesn’t happen again in 2020.”

Jan. 25, 2019, in an interview with NPR

Syria

“The Assad regime continues to conduct heinous attacks on the people of Syria, and it is clear deterrence has not worked. Having failed to articulate a strategy for the crisis in Syria, President Trump risks pulling the United States into a broader conflict with this military action. The decision to use military force against the Syrian government must be made in pursuit of a comprehensive objective and with authorization from Congress.”

April 14, 2018, in a Senate news release

Saudi Arabia

“It’s … critical to stress how inadequate the President’s response to the death of Jamal Khashoggi has been, in effect legitimizing his murder and failing to stand up for press freedom. The administration must hold Saudi Arabia accountable.”

Dec. 13, 2018, in a Senate news release

Montana Gov. Steve Bullock speaks during a campaign stop at a coffee shop in Newton, Iowa, on May 17.
Montana Gov. Steve Bullock speaks during a campaign stop at a coffee shop in Newton, Iowa, on May 17. Above: Steve Pope/Getty Images/Cutout photo: Steven Ferdman/Getty Images

Steve Bullock

Governor of Montana

Afghanistan

“Even as governor, I went over to Afghanistan in 2013. And talking to both military leaders and in the diplomatic corps, the discussion was: It’s time to get out, it’s time to let this country go forward.”

June 19, 2019, in an interview with the New York Times

“I would want to make sure that we are completely out by the end of my first term.”

July 17, 2019, in an interview with NPR

Trade & China

“We have to get tough on China. But … America First has become America alone. And I know that [agriculture] producers in Montana are getting hit on lack of a market. They’re also getting hit on the inputs. If they want to buy a new tractor, steel and aluminum is more expensive. So there’s no doubt that we need to be tough on China. But the way that he’s approaching it is just, ‘Well, we’ll do it alone with a blunt instrument of tariffs,’ and that’s not going to get us there.”

May 24, 2019, in an interview with WBUR

Climate Change

“Ask any Montana farmer, rancher, hunter, angler, or skier – climate change is real and poses a threat to our economy and our way of life. … To not acknowledge that or deal with it in a responsible way is short-sighted and dangerous. In Montana, and in America, we face our challenges head on and work together to find solutions. We do not run away from them or pretend they don’t exist.”

June 1, 2017, in a statement on Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Paris climate agreement

“High-tide flooding in Charleston has more than doubled since 2000. In the West, our fire seasons are 78 days longer than in the 1970s. Climate change is an urgent threat and it demands immediate and durable action.”

July 11, 2019, on Twitter

Immigration

“Certainly we have to secure our borders. This notion of an 18th-century solution of building a wall to what’s a 21st-century challenge, I mean it’s a vanity project for this president. You have 3 million people who live here that have known no other country than ours as Dreamers. We need to find a path to citizenship for them.”

June 26, 2019, in an interview with WHO TV Channel 13

“The largest impediment to immigration reform? Donald J. Trump.”

July 23, 2019, on Twitter

Iran

“The Iran nuclear deal wasn’t perfect, but you know what? They stopped. They stopped because America didn’t go in alone. We came together with our partners, and I think that when we start treating sort of our allies as adversaries and our adversaries as allies, we’re losing track of what’s—since post-World War II, I mean—the established order of this world.”

May 14, 2019, in an interview with CBS News

“This is the consequence of Donald Trump’s ‘America Alone’ foreign policy: Iran is now closer to attaining a nuclear weapon than when Trump took office. We need to put our national security before political grandstanding.”

July 1, 2019, on Twitter

Russia

“Lost in today’s news cycle is just how thoroughly Russia influenced our election. It is yet untold how much money was spent and how, but we know this: the next statewide election is in 7 months. We must protect our elections from foreign influence. Our democracy depends on it.”

April 18, 2019, on Twitter

Yemen & Saudi Arabia

“I would [end U.S. military support for Saudi Arabia’s war in Yemen]. What’s happened in Yemen has been failed from the beginning. So I think that we actually need to actually be withdrawing the U.S. dollars but try to bring the U.N. in together for more of a peacekeeping role.”

July 17, 2019, in an interview with NPR

John Delaney greets guests at a soup luncheon in Knoxville, Iowa, on Feb. 17.
John Delaney greets guests at a soup luncheon in Knoxville, Iowa, on Feb. 17. Scott Olson/Getty Images

John Delaney

Former U.S. congressman from Maryland

Afghanistan

“I’m like most Americans: I want to get our troops out of Afghanistan, I want to get our troops out of Syria, I want to get our troops out of Iraq. But I want to do it when we’ve accomplished, effectively, the goals that are in the best interest of the American people. … At the end of the day, the reason we’re in all these countries, fundamentally, was about the fact that we thought there was a terror risk to the United States of America and our citizens. And we went there for those reasons, and I wouldn’t want to leave until I felt like that risk didn’t exist.”

June 19, 2019, in an interview with the New York Times

China

“The biggest geopolitical challenge is China, but the biggest geopolitical threat remains nuclear weapons.”

June 26, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

“We need to negotiate with China from a position of strength, and that means ending trade wars with our closest friends and allies so that we can join forces in confronting Beijing. It also means rejoining the Trans-Pacific Partnership.”

April 30, 2019, in a speech at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies

“The president was more right on China than he was wrong in terms of the scale of the problem. I just think his diagnosis and his prescription of the problem are wrong. He thinks the big issue is the trade deficit. And while I don’t love the trade deficit, for me the central concern is China’s intellectual property theft.”

June 20, 2019, in an interview with Vox

Russia

“The difference between my approach to Russia and President Trump’s is that I believe, as did Ronald Reagan and many Cold War leaders, that we can only negotiate successfully with Moscow from a position of significant strength. If we approach Russia from a position of strength, then we can have an honest dialogue about Russia’s interests and role in the world. A responsible president is cleareyed about Russia’s motives and tactics but is mindful that dialogue with Russia is in our self-interest.”

April 30, 2019, in a speech at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies

“Russia is certainly not our ally, but we don’t want it to be our enemy. We don’t want to go back to the Cold War.”

June 20, 2019, in an interview with Vox

Climate Change

“I will rejoin the Paris climate accord, and I will lead a discussion globally as to how advance what I think are incredibly promising negative emission technologies.”

April 30, 2019, in a speech at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies

“All the economists agree that a carbon pricing mechanism works. You just have to do it right. You can’t put a price on carbon raise energy prices and not give the money back to the American people. My proposal … is put a price on carbon, give a dividend back to the American people—it goes out one pocket, back in the other.”

June 26, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

Yemen & Saudi Arabia

“Trump and Jared Kushner support the Saudi war in Yemen that has killed 85,000 kids. Why? To secure some arms sales (or perhaps a future hotel). We should be insisting on an end to this conflict.”

Dec. 9, 2018, in a tweet

North Korea

“I support the Trump administration’s discussions with North Korea. We have to have discussions with our ‘enemies.’ That’s the point of diplomacy. And so the Delaney administration looks forward to continuing these discussions and working toward a denuclearized North Korea.”

June 20, 2019, in an interview with Vox

Iran

“I will seek to rejoin the JCPOA but negotiate tougher terms with Iran upon re-entry.”

April 30, 2019, in a speech at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies

Syria

“In Syria we should not reduce forces until we have a clear understanding of how the Kurds will be protected, that the threat of ISIS is eliminated, that the large numbers of ISIS detainees are dealt with properly, and that Iran doesn’t have a military presence on the Israeli border.”

April 30, 2019, in a speech at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies

Immigration

“This also means securing our borders. And it can be done. The experts tell us that a combination of electronics, manpower, fencing, and barriers is needed to curtail unlawful entry into our country. But we also need comprehensive immigration reform, including a path to citizenship. In parallel, I will launch Plan Central America, inspired by the previously successful Plan Colombia, to help the governments in that region overcome the lawlessness that is the root of population outflow to the United States.”

April 30, 2019, in a speech at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies

Tim Ryan speaks to guests during a campaign stop in Sioux City, Iowa, on May 18.
Tim Ryan speaks to guests during a campaign stop in Sioux City, Iowa, on May 18. Scott Olson/Getty Images

Tim Ryan

U.S. congressman from Ohio

Afghanistan

“The reality is if the United States isn’t engaged, the Taliban will grow. … We have got to have some presence there.”

June 26, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

China

“I actually think that we beat China, we deal with China, by actually having an industrial policy in the United States. That means that there are industries that are growing at 25 or 30 percent.”

May 13, 2019, in an interview with PBS NewsHour

“You know, China has a long-term economic plan that they have, a 20-year plan, a 30-year plan, a 50-year plan, 100-year plan. We’re operating in a 24-hour news cycle, and we better have a larger strategy as we start to take on this huge economic force.”

May 3, 2018, in an interview with NPR

“China is coming at us. They are in Africa. They are locking down long-term deals in Africa for raw materials. They’re building islands in the South China Sea. They’ve got very detailed, long-term programs like their One Belt, One Road, where they’re connecting Asia to the Middle East.”

Jan. 2, 2019, in an interview with the Hugh Hewitt Show

Climate Change

“I embrace a Green New Deal, I just think we have to have public-private partnerships if we’re going to get there. We have to align the environmental incentives with the financial incentives.”

May 13, 2019, in an interview with PBS NewsHour

“Every other country around the world is making real strategic investments in carbon emission reduction and clean energy technology. We’re not. The United States’ inaction is unacceptable. We must show greater leadership through strong, decisive action.”

Campaign website

Immigration

“What kind of country are we running here where we have a president of the United States who is so focused on hate and fear and division, and what has happened now, the end result, is now we’ve got kids literally laying in their own snot with three-week-old diapers that haven’t been changed?”

June 26, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

“On the immigration side, I’m lockstep with all progressives, no question about it. We need to have a compassionate immigration system. We should accommodate refugees, we should have a pathway to citizenship—I’m 1,000 percent for all that. But if the American people want to know that you’re also going to protect them … we have got to make sure those drugs don’t get into our country. … You have to have a better relationship with Mexico. And, quite frankly, you need to get established in Central America. These countries that are insecure, people are coming to the United States. We don’t even have an ambassador in Honduras—go to the heart of the problem and solve it there so that we’re not dealing with it on our border.”

May 13, 2019, in an interview with PBS NewsHour

Iran

“The Iran Nuclear Agreement remains our best chance for lasting peace and nuclear nonproliferation in Iran. … The President is committing an egregious national security miscalculation rooted in politics, not fact.”

May 8, 2018, in a news release

“We used to be a stabilizing factor in the world, for decades, and now we cause more chaos than is needed. There’s enough chaos in the world, you don’t need the United States causing more.”

June 24, 2019, in an interview with MSNBC

North Korea

“The President’s handling of North Korea since assuming office has been reckless and shortsighted. His approach has been defined by childish remarks and knee-jerk reactions with no clear strategic goals to guide him. … Foreign policy is not a game, and is not something to conducted by Twitter.”

Oct. 4, 2017, in a news release

“I share the Administration’s goals of complete, verifiable, and irreversible denuclearization of the North Korean regime. Regrettably, it seems that we have nothing today to show for our efforts other than a toothless statement and the same promises that the North Korean regime has already given and broken many times over to previous presidents.”

June 12, 2018, in a news release

Russia

“There is no doubt that Russia set out to, and succeeded at, meddling in our democratic process. Today’s new indictments illustrate that with startling clarity. … Russia wants to show democracy cannot work, and that strongmen, oppression, and cronyism are the only paths forward. We cannot allow that. It’s not just the security of our elections at stake, but the viability of democracy itself.”

Feb. 16, 2018, on Twitter

Saudi Arabia & Human Rights

“Some leaders in our country may turn a blind eye to Saudi Arabia’s violations of human rights, but I will not stand for it.”

May 16, 2019, in a news release

Syria

“It is critical that Congress and the American people be provided with a clear plan for how to work with our allies to end the Syrian civil war, remove Assad from power, and restore stability to the region. We need our allies now more than ever, and we need a thoughtful, steady-handed Commander in Chief to lead them.”

April 14, 2018, in a news release

Marianne Williamson speaks at an Iowa Democratic Party event in Cedar Rapids on June 9.
Marianne Williamson speaks at an Iowa Democratic Party event in Cedar Rapids on June 9. Scott Olson/Getty Images

Marianne Williamson

Self-help author and activist

Afghanistan

“Our Afghanistan policy should be based as much on listening to the women of Afghanistan as on listening to foreign policy or military experts. It is they who will suffer most from a Taliban takeover of the country.”

Feb. 3, 2019, on Twitter

Trade & China

“When it comes to China, [President Donald Trump is] absolutely right. It was time for someone to stand up to this. He’s right that this has been going on a very long time. Now, whether the number of his tariffs is too blunt … is a question. The fact that he’s taking a tough stance—he’s right.”

May 13, 2019, in a Fox News interview

Climate Change

“I would say to the American people in unequivocal terms that the debate is over. It’s not just one of our greatest challenges; it is the greatest moral challenge of our age. We would have, if I were president of the United States, a world-class environmentalist at the head of the EPA. No more chemical company executives heading the EPA. No more oil company heading the EPA.”

April 14, 2019, at a CNN town hall

“We are going to turn from a dirty economy … to a clean economy. We’re going to have a green new deal, we’re going to create millions of jobs, we’re going to do this within the next 12 years because I’m not interested in just winning the next election.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

Immigration

“Not one DACA recipient should have to worry, not even for a minute, about their immigration status. Their situation is exactly the kind of mean-spiritedness that needs to end, and having the opportunity as president to provide them with a path to citizenship will be my pleasure.”

June 15, 2019, on Twitter

“If you forcibly take a child from their parents’ arms, you are kidnapping them. And if you take a lot of children and you put them in a detainment center, thus inflicting chronic trauma upon them, that’s called child abuse. This is collective child abuse. … And when this is crime—both of those things are a crime—and if your government does it, that doesn’t make it less of a crime. These are state-sponsored crimes.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

Iran

“The president is saber rattling towards Iran today, sending 1,000 troops to the Middle East. We ourselves are the bullies here, and this is nothing more than the insanity of the military industrial complex. Don’t buy it.”

June 17, 2019, on Twitter

Iran & Climate Change

“We will reenter the Paris climate accords as well as the Iran nuclear deal.”

June 18, 2019, at the World Affairs Council of New Hampshire

Human Rights

“I think that there are many countries, including the United States, that behave in ways that do not always meet international standards of human rights. As president of the United States, I would have an equally robust commitment to both the legitimate security concerns of Israel and the human rights of the Palestinians and the economic hopes and opportunities and dignity of the Palestinian people.”

June 19, 2019, in a New York Times interview

Yemen & Saudi Arabia

“The blood of starving children in Yemen is on the hands of every US official who chooses a $350B arms sale to Saudi Arabia over the value of their lives.”

May 27, 2019, on Twitter

Tom Steyer speaks at the Iowa State Fair in Des Moines on Aug.  11.
Tom Steyer speaks at the Iowa State Fair in Des Moines on Aug. 11. Alex Wong/Getty Images

Tom Steyer

Billionaire activist

Climate Change

“On day one, we’d do a bunch of things including reentering [the Paris climate accords], freeze and reverse the Trump [rulemaking], we’d establish a cabinet level position, put a climate lens on all purchasing … and if Congress couldn’t pass a Green New Deal, [we] would set clean energy standards.”

July 25, 2019, in an interview with Politico

“I would declare a state of emergency on day one for climate. Because we can’t wait. The timing on that is—it’s urgent. It’s an emergency.”

Aug. 1, 2019, in an interview with WMUR-TV

Saudi Arabia

“Saudi Arabia’s brutal murder of Jamal [Khashoggi] should have been met with condemnation—instead, Donald Trump offered his friendship.”

Oct. 2, 2019, on Twitter

Russia

“Our entire intelligence community has concluded that Russia interfered in our election in 2016 and that their campaign of information warfare is ongoing. We also know that Russia has launched cyberattacks on our power grid. Congress has allocated $120 million to the Trump administration to deter these attacks. To date, Trump’s administration hasn’t spent any of it. … This isn’t even a slap on Russia’s wrist. It’s looking the other way.”

March 29, 2018, in a video on Twitter

Trade

“Industrial supply chains are linked in a way they’ve never been before. The idea that we can be separate from other countries in the world is absurd.”

Aug. 1, 2019, in an interview with WMUR-TV

U.S. Army soldiers from NATO are seen through a cracked window in the Nangarhar province of Afghanistan on July 7, 2018.
U.S. Army soldiers from NATO are seen through a cracked window in the Nangarhar province of Afghanistan on July 7, 2018. WAKIL KOHSAR/AFP/Getty Images

The Candidates on Afghanistan

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Joe Biden

Former vice president

“The whole purpose of going to Afghanistan was to not have a counterinsurgency, meaning that we’re going to put that country together. It cannot be put together. Let me say it again. It will not be put together.”

Sept. 12, 2019, at the third Democratic debate

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Elizabeth Warren

U.S. senator from Massachusetts

“We’ve turned the corner in Afghanistan so many times that we’re now going in circles. Poppy production is up. The Taliban are on the rise. Afghan forces are taking unsustainable losses. The government is losing territory and credibility.”

Nov. 29, 2018, in a speech at American University

“I think it is right to get our troops out of Syria—and, let me add, I think it’s right to get our troops out of Afghanistan.”

Jan. 2, 2019, in an interview with MSNBC

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Pete Buttigieg

Mayor of South Bend, Indiana

“Endless war cannot continue. And if you look at Afghanistan or a number of other places where we are operating, with boots on the ground, we’re operating on an authorization for use of military force from 2001. … We don’t want to put ourselves in a position where another generation finds itself being deployed again because of another attack, but simply staying there infinitely with no plan is not going to work. And neither is leaving with no plan.”

Jan. 23, 2019, while announcing his 2020 exploratory committee

“A negotiated peace agreement in which we maintain a relevant special operations/intelligence presence but bring home our ground troops is the best way to ensure that Afghanistan never again becomes a base for terrorist attacks against the United States or its allies.”

July 30, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

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Kamala Harris

U.S. senator from California

“I believe we should bring back our troops from Afghanistan, but I also believe that we need to have a presence there in terms of supporting what the leaders of Afghanistan want to do in terms of having peace in that region and certainly suppressing any possibility of ISIS or any other terrorist organization from gaining any steam.”

June 19, 2019, interview with the New York Times

“As president, she’ll end the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and protracted military engagements in places like Syria. But she’ll do so responsibly – by consulting our Generals and Ambassadors, not via tweet.”

Campaign website

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Andrew Yang

Entrepreneur

“My hope would be that there would be no American troops in Afghanistan at the end of my first term, but it’s impossible to know that for sure given that the reality on the ground might lead us to have to have people there if we can accomplish goals in that time frame.”

June 19, 2019, in an interview with the New York Times

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Beto O'Rourke

Former U.S. congressman from Texas

“We need to end the wars that began, in the case of Afghanistan, nearly 18 years ago, in the case of Iraq, nearly 28 years ago. Bring these service members back to their home country, to their communities, support them as they transition into civilian life. We have to decide that we will not achieve our foreign-policy goals on the backs of 18- and 19- and 20-year-old service members who are deployed in dozens of countries, half a world away, right now. We have to begin to bring these wars to a close and address legitimate foreign-policy concerns and goals through our diplomacy, and through working with other countries in the region.”

June 19, 2019, in a New York Times interview

“We’ve satisfied the reasons for our involvement in Afghanistan in the first place. And it’s time to bring those service members back home from Afghanistan but also from Iraq, also from Yemen and Somalia and Libya and Syria.”

July 30, 2019, at the second Democratic debate

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Cory Booker

U.S. senator from New Jersey

“From my series of meetings and briefings in Afghanistan, it was clear that a diplomatic surge is needed in the country to further the efforts of peace and reconciliation. … I agree with our Ambassador and military leaders in Afghanistan that there is no military solution to the conflict.”

June 4, 2018, in a news release

“We need to bring our American troops home. We cannot have forever wars in this nation, and this is one area where I’m going to be determined to bring American troops home. … My driving force will be to bring our troops home safe and sound under the conditions that will lead toward peace and security in that region.”

June 19, 2019, in a New York Times interview

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Amy Klobuchar

U.S. senator from Minnesota

“We have been there longer than some of our young people have been on this earth.”

June 19, 2019, in a New York Times interview

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Julián Castro

Former secretary of housing and urban development

“I recognize, like a lot of people, that we do need to withdraw from our engagements there. The question is how we do that. I disagree with this administration’s haphazard way of announcing and going about withdrawal. We need to withdraw in a way that is orderly, that respects our allies, that leaves the region as stable as we possibly can, given the circumstances.”

June 19, 2019, in a New York Times interview

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Tulsi Gabbard

U.S. congresswoman from Hawaii

“I will end the wasteful regime-change wars that have taken such a toll on our troops and on the American people.”

June 19, 2019, in an interview with the New York Times

“We can’t keep U.S. troops deployed to Afghanistan thinking that we’re going to somehow squash this Taliban that has been there, and every other country that’s tried it failed.”

June 26, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

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Michael Bennet

U.S. senator from Colorado

“If you’re a kid in college or you’re 18 or 19 years old, you’ve only known us being at war. We’ve spent $5.6 trillion in the Middle East. It’s time for us to come home from Afghanistan.”

June 19, 2019, in a New York Times interview

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Steve Bullock

Governor of Montana

“Even as governor, I went over to Afghanistan in 2013. And talking to both military leaders and in the diplomatic corps, the discussion was: It’s time to get out, it’s time to let this country go forward.”

June 19, 2019, in an interview with the New York Times

“I would want to make sure that we are completely out by the end of my first term.”

July 17, 2019, in an interview with NPR

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John Delaney

Former U.S. congressman from Maryland

“I’m like most Americans: I want to get our troops out of Afghanistan, I want to get our troops out of Syria, I want to get our troops out of Iraq. But I want to do it when we’ve accomplished, effectively, the goals that are in the best interest of the American people. … At the end of the day, the reason we’re in all these countries, fundamentally, was about the fact that we thought there was a terror risk to the United States of America and our citizens. And we went there for those reasons, and I wouldn’t want to leave until I felt like that risk didn’t exist.”

June 19, 2019, in an interview with the New York Times

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Tim Ryan

U.S. congressman from Ohio

“The reality is if the United States isn’t engaged, the Taliban will grow. … We have got to have some presence there.”

June 26, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

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Marianne Williamson

Self-help author and activist

“Our Afghanistan policy should be based as much on listening to the women of Afghanistan as on listening to foreign policy or military experts. It is they who will suffer most from a Taliban takeover of the country.”

Feb. 3, 2019, on Twitter

A propaganda poster of Chinese President Xi Jinping in Beijing on March 12, 2018.
A propaganda poster of Chinese President Xi Jinping in Beijing on March 12, 2018. NICOLAS ASFOURI/AFP/Getty Images

The Candidates on China

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Joe Biden

Former vice president

“While Trump is pursuing a damaging and erratic trade war, without any real strategy, China is positioning itself to lead the world in renewable energy. While Trump is attacking our friends, China is pressing its advantage all over the world. So you bet I’m worried about China—if we keep following Trump’s path.”

June 11, 2019, at an Iowa campaign event

“China’s continuing oppression of its own people, especially the abuse and internment of more than one million Uyghurs, is one of the worst human rights crises in the world today. It can’t be ignored. Human rights must be at the core—not periphery—of our engagement in the world.”

June 4, 2019, on Twitter

“I would not rejoin the [Trans-Pacific Partnership] as it was initially put forward. I would insist that we renegotiate pieces of that with the Pacific nations that we had in South America and North America, so that we could bring them together to hold China accountable”

July 31, 2019, at the second Democratic debate

“If we don’t set the rules, we, in fact, are going to find ourselves with China setting the rules. And that’s why you need to organize the world to take on China, to stop the corrupt practices that are underway.”

Sept. 12, 2019, at the third Democratic debate

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Elizabeth Warren

U.S. senator from Massachusetts

“China is on the rise, using its economic might to bludgeon its way onto the world stage and offering a model in which economic gains legitimize oppression.”

Nov. 29, 2018, in a speech at American University

“China’s economic policies undercut American workers. Its military ambitions and coercive diplomacy threaten peace in Asia and beyond. Its repression at home, including its treatment of the Uighur minority, and attacks on norms abroad risk eroding liberal values around the world.”

Oct. 3, 2019, in a Foreign Policy op-ed

 

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Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator from Vermont

“Since the China trade deal I voted against, America has lost over 3 million manufacturing jobs. It’s wrong to pretend that China isn’t one of our major economic competitors. When we are in the White House we will win that competition by fixing our trade policies.”

May 1, 2019, on Twitter

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Pete Buttigieg

Mayor of South Bend, Indiana

“We’ve got to recognize that the China challenge really is a serious one. This is not something to dismiss or wave away. And if you look at what China is doing, they’re using technology for the perfection of dictatorship. But their fundamental economic model isn’t going to change because of some tariffs.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

“Where necessary and feasible, we should seek cooperation with Beijing, such as in addressing climate disruption, maintaining strategic stability, combatting terrorism, and managing conflict through international peacekeeping. But the United States must defend our fundamental values, core interests, and critical alliances, and accept that this will often entail friction with China.”

July 30, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

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Kamala Harris

U.S. senator from California

“We have to hold China accountable. They steal our products, including our intellectual property. They dump substandard products into our economy. … We also need to partner with China on climate and the crisis that that presents. We need to partner with China on the issue of North Korea.”

Sept. 12, 2019, at the third Democratic debate

“Under my administration, we will cooperate with China on global issues like climate change, but we won’t allow human rights abuses to go unchecked.”

Aug. 21, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

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Andrew Yang

Entrepreneur

“There are aspects of Chinese behavior that are deeply problematic—their piracy of intellectual property. … They have taken advantage of frameworks to their own benefit, and we haven’t had some of the same benefits. But China is in the midst of an historic increase in prosperity, and that is not something America should be threatened by at all.”

June 18, 2019, in an interview with Hill.TV

“I’m a cult hero in China already. The Chinese government took three days to think about it, and then decided they really liked this—the Asian guy running for president. So they put my face all over Sina, and Weibo, and WeChat, and then the rest of it.”

Feb. 15, 2019, in a speech at Harvard University

“I think China’s being set up as the antagonist by the U.S. If we can see China’s rise as complementary, that would be the best hope. That, unfortunately, is not what I think is the American tendency. But if I become president, hopefully I can make it so.”

Feb. 15, 2019, in a speech at Harvard University

“So, we need to—to crack down on Chinese malfeasance in the trade relationship, but the tariffs and the trade war are the wrong way to go.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

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Beto O'Rourke

Former U.S. congressman from Texas

“If we’re going to … be successful in this standoff with China … I’d much rather do this with friends than go it alone, as we are right now. And to do that, we’re going to need the European Union. We’re going to need Canada and Mexico. We’re going to need our traditional friends and allies.”

May 2019, in an interview in New Hampshire

“Trump knows full well how destructive his trade wars have been. They amount to one of the biggest middle-class tax hikes in history. But even with so many farmers crippled by tariffs, drowning in debt, and some farms still underwater, our President has refused to throw them a meaningful lifeline. … And the more time I spend listening in rural communities, the clearer it becomes: China isn’t paying the price for this reckless trade war. We are.”

May 21, 2019, in an op-ed in CNN

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Cory Booker

U.S. senator from New Jersey

“The Chinese have been taking advantage of this country and other nations on the planet Earth. They do not fight fair. They steal our intellectual property. They force the transfer of technology. … They unfairly subsidize industries to undercut the market for other countries. … Please give me the chance to be your president—I’m going to show you how to take on China and win. And I’m not going to do it by turning my back on our allies.”

May 12, 2019, in a speech in Laconia, New Hampshire

“If I am president, whenever the United States meets with China, human rights will be a focus of the conversation.”

July 30, 2019, “Candidates Answer CFR’s Questions,” Council on Foreign Relations

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Amy Klobuchar

U.S. senator from Minnesota

“Glad that Department of Commerce announced tarrifs this week on steel imports from China & Japan. U.S. workers need level playing field.”

May 20, 2016, on Twitter

“Two threats—economic threat, China. Our major threat right now is what’s going on in the Middle East with Iran if we don’t get our act together.”

First Dem debate on June 26, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

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Julián Castro

Former secretary of housing and urban development

“You want to outcompete China? We should start by building alliances around the world, not tearing them down. #SOTU”

Feb. 5, 2019, on Twitter

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Tulsi Gabbard

U.S. congresswoman from Hawaii

“Trump’s trade-war against China has damaged, not helped, our economy, has undermined our efforts to denuclearize North Korea, and has strengthened the hand of Chinese anti-American militarists.”

Feb. 5, 2019, on Twitter

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Michael Bennet

U.S. senator from Colorado

“I think that, first of all, the biggest threat to our national security right now is Russia, not China. … I think the president’s been right to push back on China, but he’s done it in completely the wrong way. We should mobilize the entire rest of the world, who all have a shared interest in pushing back on China’s mercantilist trade policies, and I think we can do that.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

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Steve Bullock

Governor of Montana

“We have to get tough on China. But … America First has become America alone. And I know that [agriculture] producers in Montana are getting hit on lack of a market. They’re also getting hit on the inputs. If they want to buy a new tractor, steel and aluminum is more expensive. So there’s no doubt that we need to be tough on China. But the way that he’s approaching it is just, ‘Well, we’ll do it alone with a blunt instrument of tariffs,’ and that’s not going to get us there.”

May 24, 2019, in an interview with WBUR

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John Delaney

Former U.S. congressman from Maryland

“The biggest geopolitical challenge is China, but the biggest geopolitical threat remains nuclear weapons.”

June 26, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

“We need to negotiate with China from a position of strength, and that means ending trade wars with our closest friends and allies so that we can join forces in confronting Beijing. It also means rejoining the Trans-Pacific Partnership.”

April 30, 2019, in a speech at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies

“The president was more right on China than he was wrong in terms of the scale of the problem. I just think his diagnosis and his prescription of the problem are wrong. He thinks the big issue is the trade deficit. And while I don’t love the trade deficit, for me the central concern is China’s intellectual property theft.”

June 20, 2019, in an interview with Vox

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Tim Ryan

U.S. congressman from Ohio

“I actually think that we beat China, we deal with China, by actually having an industrial policy in the United States. That means that there are industries that are growing at 25 or 30 percent.”

May 13, 2019, in an interview with PBS NewsHour

“You know, China has a long-term economic plan that they have, a 20-year plan, a 30-year plan, a 50-year plan, 100-year plan. We’re operating in a 24-hour news cycle, and we better have a larger strategy as we start to take on this huge economic force.”

May 3, 2018, in an interview with NPR

“China is coming at us. They are in Africa. They are locking down long-term deals in Africa for raw materials. They’re building islands in the South China Sea. They’ve got very detailed, long-term programs like their One Belt, One Road, where they’re connecting Asia to the Middle East.”

Jan. 2, 2019, in an interview with the Hugh Hewitt Show

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Marianne Williamson

Self-help author and activist

“When it comes to China, [President Donald Trump is] absolutely right. It was time for someone to stand up to this. He’s right that this has been going on a very long time. Now, whether the number of his tariffs is too blunt … is a question. The fact that he’s taking a tough stance—he’s right.”

May 13, 2019, in a Fox News interview

A polar bear wanders the outskirts of Norilsk, Russia, hundreds of miles from its natural habitat, on June 17.
A polar bear wanders the outskirts of Norilsk, Russia, hundreds of miles from its natural habitat, on June 17. IRINA YARINSKAYA/AFP/Getty Images

The Candidates on Climate Change

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Joe Biden

Former vice president

“He will not only recommit the United States to the Paris Agreement on climate change – he will go much further than that. He will lead an effort to get every major country to ramp up the ambition of their domestic climate targets.”

Campaign website

“It is an existential threat. There is no doubt about that. And the fact of the matter is that we make up 15 percent of the problem. The rest of the world makes up 80 percent, 85 percent of the problem. If we did everything perfectly, everything, and we must and should in order to get other countries to move, we still have to get the rest of the world to come along.”

Sept. 4, 2019, at the CNN Climate Crisis Town Hall 

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Elizabeth Warren

U.S. senator from Massachusetts

“Like we have before, we should bank on American ingenuity and American workers to lead the global effort to face down this threat — and create more than a million good jobs here at home.”

June 4, 2019, in a campaign post on Medium

“The fossil fuel industry wants to keep us arguing about light bulbs and cheeseburgers while 70% of pollution comes from just three industries. We need to focus on creating big, structural change to tackle this climate crisis and the Washington corruption head-on.”

Sept. 4, 2019, on Twitter 

 

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Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator from Vermont

“Our job is to rally the entire planet to stand up to the fossil fuel industry, which continues to make huge profits while their carbon emissions destroy the planet for our children and grandchildren.”

Oct. 9, 2018, in a speech at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies

“I’ll tell you what else, in my view, is a national security issue. And that is: We have got, as a nation, to reject Trump’s idea that climate change is a hoax.”

“I fear very much the kind of world that we’re leaving to our kids in terms of more drought, more flooding, more extreme weather disturbances, more rising ocean levels. And when those things happen, by the way, they become a national security issue, because people migrate. … If I’m living in the Mideast someplace and I can’t grow food on my land, I’m going to pick up and leave, and that causes conflict.”

April 15, 2019, at a Fox News town hall

“Reaching 100 percent renewable energy for electricity and transportation by no later than 2030 and complete decarbonization by 2050 at latest.”

Campaign website

“Fossil fuel executives should be criminally prosecuted for the destruction they have knowingly caused.”

Aug. 22, 2019, on Twitter

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Pete Buttigieg

Mayor of South Bend, Indiana

“We must treat climate change as the existential security challenge it is … America can rise to this national challenge [with] an approach that should include a carbon tax and dividend to reorient our economy around a more sensible rewards system. It includes quadrupling American R&D to at least 25 billion dollars a year, and leading the way on research into renewable energy, energy storage, and carbon storage.”

June 11, 2019, in a speech at Indiana University

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Kamala Harris

U.S. senator from California

“It’s a climate crisis. It represents an existential threat to us as a species. And the fact that we have a president of the United States who has embraced science fiction over science fact will be to our collective peril. … That is why I support a Green New Deal. It is why I believe on day one and as president will reenter us in the Paris agreement, because we have to take these issues seriously.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

“America is the largest single greenhouse gas emitter in history and we have an obligation to be a leader in the fight against climate change. As president, I will immediately rejoin the Paris Agreement and set a path forward to exceed those goals.”

Sept. 6, 2019, on Twitter

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Andrew Yang

Entrepreneur

“I’m for carbon fee and dividend, rejoining the Paris accord, investing hundreds of billions in a more resilient infrastructure. I’m for the spirit of the Green New Deal. … I would also invest in carbon capture and sequestration and geoengineering measures, because, in my mind, unfortunately at this point we either have to expect the worst or start trying to counteract the worst effects.”

March 27, 2019, in an interview with CNET

“Climate change is an existential threat to our way of life, humans and penguins alike. And to the extent I ever suggested I am not fully committed, then I conveyed the wrong message. … The last four years have been the four warmest years in recorded history, you don’t need to be a genius or a scientist to say that climate change is picking up.”

April 28, 2019, at a town hall in Des Moines, Iowa

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Beto O'Rourke

Former U.S. congressman from Texas

“Climate change is the greatest threat we face—one which will test our country, our democracy, and every single one of us. The stakes are clear: We are living in a transformed reality, where our longstanding inaction has not only impacted our climate but led to a growing emergency that has already started to sap our economic prosperity and public health—worsening inequality and threatening our safety and security.”

Campaign website

“Day one, reenter the Paris climate agreement. On that same day, make sure that we lead the world in going well beyond the Paris climate agreement. Ensure that we regulate and enforce reduced greenhouse gas emissions from methane and then get to net zero on public lands by ensuring we have no new oil and gas leases on federally protected lands and offshore areas that are now being drilled today.”

Sept. 4, 2019, at CNN’s Climate Crisis Town Hall

“No new oil and gas leases offshore. No new oil and gas leases on federally protected lands. All existing leases will reflect the true costs of pollution, climate change, and carbon. I think that’s the best way to keep that oil and gas in the ground and make sure that we fully free ourselves from a dependence on fossil fuels.”

Sept. 4, 2019, at CNN’s Climate Crisis Town Hall

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Cory Booker

U.S. senator from New Jersey

“The first question I was asked in Iowa was about #GreenNewDeal. The hard truth is climate change has imperiled our planet—it’s going to take bold action now to save it including dramatic investment in green energy that will create the jobs of the future. We can do this.”

Feb. 8, 2019, on Twitter

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Amy Klobuchar

U.S. senator from Minnesota

“I believe in science. And that inviting climate change deniers onto your National Security Council is dangerous. We need to get back into the International Climate Change Agreement. Now.”

June 15, 2019, on Twitter

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Julián Castro

Former secretary of housing and urban development

“The harder part is, I believe, that we need to invest in a big way in sustainability. … I like the concept of the Green New Deal, for instance, because I don’t think that we have to choose between protecting our planet and creating jobs and opportunity.”

May 27, 2019, at a New Hampshire meet-and-greet

“The first thing that I would do … is sign an executive order recommitting us to the Paris climate accord.”

June 26, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

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Tulsi Gabbard

U.S. congresswoman from Hawaii

“President Trump’s decision today to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, making us just one of three countries in the world not to participate, is short-sighted and irresponsible.”

June 1, 2017, in a news release

“We cannot wait any longer to act on climate change. … We must pass my bill, the #OFFAct to protect our people and our planet by transitioning to a 100% clean energy economy by 2035.”

Dec. 20, 2017, in a news release

“I support the carbon neutrality goals of the Green New Deal and the awareness it has brought across the country on the critical issues of energy independence and the climate crisis, however, I do not support ‘leaving the door open’ to nuclear power unless and until there is a permanent solution to the problem of nuclear waste.”

Spring 2019, interview with the Washington Post

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Michael Bennet

U.S. senator from Colorado

“Concern about melting ice caps and endangered species is justified, but it has little resonance beyond our cities and coasts. On the other hand, every farmer and rancher in Colorado understands that persistent droughts and wildfires directly threaten their business and way of life. Likewise, many in Colorado know that warming temperatures endanger our skiing, fly fishing and outdoor recreation. If we ignore these economic realities in our climate debate, we will struggle to break the gridlock in Washington.”

Nov. 5, 2017, in an op-ed in USA Today

“America’s Climate Change Plan will reduce emissions in line with the most aggressive targets set by the world’s scientists and achieve 100 percent clean, net-zero emissions as soon as possible, and no later than 2050. Our plan will drive economic growth for the 21st century and create millions of high-paying jobs. Our plan intentionally engages a broad coalition of Americans to ensure that our approach to climate change not only is sufficiently ambitious, but will endure across American elections and administrations. To combat this crisis as fast as possible, we must reignite America’s ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit in a shared mission.”

May 20, 2019, in his climate plan

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Steve Bullock

Governor of Montana

“Ask any Montana farmer, rancher, hunter, angler, or skier – climate change is real and poses a threat to our economy and our way of life. … To not acknowledge that or deal with it in a responsible way is short-sighted and dangerous. In Montana, and in America, we face our challenges head on and work together to find solutions. We do not run away from them or pretend they don’t exist.”

June 1, 2017, in a statement on Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Paris climate agreement

“High-tide flooding in Charleston has more than doubled since 2000. In the West, our fire seasons are 78 days longer than in the 1970s. Climate change is an urgent threat and it demands immediate and durable action.”

July 11, 2019, on Twitter

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John Delaney

Former U.S. congressman from Maryland

“I will rejoin the Paris climate accord, and I will lead a discussion globally as to how advance what I think are incredibly promising negative emission technologies.”

April 30, 2019, in a speech at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies

“All the economists agree that a carbon pricing mechanism works. You just have to do it right. You can’t put a price on carbon raise energy prices and not give the money back to the American people. My proposal … is put a price on carbon, give a dividend back to the American people—it goes out one pocket, back in the other.”

June 26, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

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Tim Ryan

U.S. congressman from Ohio

“I embrace a Green New Deal, I just think we have to have public-private partnerships if we’re going to get there. We have to align the environmental incentives with the financial incentives.”

May 13, 2019, in an interview with PBS NewsHour

“Every other country around the world is making real strategic investments in carbon emission reduction and clean energy technology. We’re not. The United States’ inaction is unacceptable. We must show greater leadership through strong, decisive action.”

Campaign website

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Marianne Williamson

Self-help author and activist

“I would say to the American people in unequivocal terms that the debate is over. It’s not just one of our greatest challenges; it is the greatest moral challenge of our age. We would have, if I were president of the United States, a world-class environmentalist at the head of the EPA. No more chemical company executives heading the EPA. No more oil company heading the EPA.”

April 14, 2019, at a CNN town hall

“We are going to turn from a dirty economy … to a clean economy. We’re going to have a green new deal, we’re going to create millions of jobs, we’re going to do this within the next 12 years because I’m not interested in just winning the next election.”

June 27, 2019, at the first Democratic debate

“We will reenter the Paris climate accords as well as the Iran nuclear deal.”

June 18, 2019, at the World Affairs Council of New Hampshire

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Tom Steyer

Billionaire activist

“On day one, we’d do a bunch of things including reentering [the Paris climate accords], freeze and reverse the Trump [rulemaking], we’d establish a cabinet level position, put a climate lens on all purchasing … and if Congress couldn’t pass a Green New Deal, [we] would set clean energy standards.”

July 25, 2019, in an interview with Politico

“I would declare a state of emergency on day one for climate. Because we can’t wait. The timing on that is—it’s urgent. It’s an emergency.”

Aug. 1, 2019, in an interview with WMUR-TV

Sailors watch an F/A-18E Super Hornet land on the U.S. Navy's aircraft carrier Dwight D. Eisenhower in the Mediterranean Sea on July 6, 2016.
Sailors watch an F/A-18E Super Hornet land on the U.S. Navy's aircraft carrier Dwight D. Eisenhower in the Mediterranean Sea on July 6, 2016. ALBERTO PIZZOLI/AFP/Getty Images

The Candidates on Defense

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Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator from Vermont

“I don’t think we have to spend $750 billion a year on the military when we don’t even know who our enemy is.”

Sept. 12, 2019, at the third Democratic debate

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Pete Buttigieg

Mayor of South Bend, Indiana

“When I am president, an authorization for the use of military force will have a built-in three-year sunset. Congress will be required to vote, and a president will be required to go to Congress to seek an authorization.”

Sept. 12, 2019, at the third Democratic debate

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Andrew Yang

Entrepreneur

“As President, I will … Sign a repeal to the [Authorization for Use of Military Force], returning the authority to declare war to Congress, and refuse to engage in anything other than emergency military activity without the express consent of Congress. Regularly audit the Department of Defense. Focus our federal budget on fixing problems at home instead of spending trillions of dollars abroad.”

Campaign website

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Beto O'Rourke

Former U.S. congressman from Texas

“We’ve satisfied the reasons for our involvement in Afghanistan in the first place. And it’s time to bring those service members back home from Afghanistan but also from Iraq, also from Yemen and Somalia and Libya and Syria.”

July 30, 2019, at the second Democratic debate

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Cory Booker

U.S. senator from New Jersey

“I will bring our troops home, and I will bring them home as quickly as possible, but I will not set during a campaign an artificial deadline.”

July 31, 2019, at the second Democratic debate

Lightning flashes over the Odervorland wind energy park near Sieversdorf, eastern Germany, on Aug. 1, 2017.
Lightning flashes over the Odervorland wind energy park near Sieversdorf, eastern Germany, on Aug. 1, 2017. PATRICK PLEUL/AFP/Getty Images

The Candidates on Energy

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Elizabeth Warren

U.S. senator from Massachusetts

“On my first day as president, I will sign an executive order that says no more drilling — a total moratorium on all new fossil fuel leases, including for drilling offshore and on public lands.”

April 15, 2019, in a campaign post on Medium

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Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator from Vermont

“Ban fracking and new fossil fuel infrastructure and keep oil, gas, and coal in the ground by banning fossil fuel leases on public lands.”

“End exports of coal, natural gas, and crude oil.”

Campaign website

“Fossil fuel executives should be criminally prosecuted for the destruction they have knowingly caused.”

Aug. 22, 2019, on Twitter

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Andrew Yang

Entrepreneur

“Nuclear isn’t a perfect solution, but it’s a solid solution for now, and a technology we should invest in as we move to a future powered primarily by renewable energy.”

Campaign website

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Cory Booker

U.S. senator from New Jersey

“If we want to move quickly toward a carbon-free future, nuclear has to be part of the equation.”

March 23, 2019, in a Washington Examiner interview

“At a time when we should be focused on swiftly transitioning to a clean energy future, we should not be creating a foundation for further fossil fuel extraction that puts our economy and environment at grave risk.”

March 14, 2019, in a news release

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Michael Bennet