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The Future of Money

The development of new financial technologies and their adoption by nation states and private actors is unleashing transformative effects on the international financial system. Though the dollar remains the dominant international currency today, there is contentious debate over whether it can be, or is in the process of being, replaced.

While another fiat currency replacing the dollar in the short term remains unlikely, the development of digital currencies in the form of central bank digital currencies (CBDCs), de-centralized cryptocurrencies, and private-sector digital currencies all pose threats to the U.S.’s ability to continue capturing gains from current systems, leveraging dollar centrality to enforce sanctions, and otherwise influence international financial transactions over the longer term.

Our 3-part series, The Future of Money, breaks down the technologies and geopolitical forces shaping the global financial landscape and is a critical resource for those looking to better understand and navigate its rapid transformation.

Future of Money
Part 1

Emerging Challenges to U.S. Dollar Supremacy

Driven by perceived U.S. sanctions overreach, numerous countries now seek to circumvent the dollar-dominated financial system. Emerging technologies are paving the way.

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Future of Money
Part 2

Cryptocurrencies: Vehicles of Financial Change

The widespread adoption of cryptocurrencies could undermine governments' control over monetary policies and disrupt global finance.

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Future of Money
Part 3

Institutional Adoption of Disruptive Financial Technologies

A comprehensive picture of the forces and actors that are critical to understanding and navigating the future financial system.

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A catalogue and country-level breakdown of cryptocurrency regulation across 117 countries.


FP Analytics’ Future of Money Power Map examines the economic, technological, and geopolitical forces driving transformation in the global financial system. Through a combination of various case studies and over two dozen leading economic, policy, and regional expert interviews, our three-part Power Map details emerging trends in private companies’ and governments’ approaches to digital currencies. These trends include challenges to the dollar system driven by sanctions overreach, the emergence of cryptocurrencies from the private sector, and government adoption of digital currencies and their underlying distributed ledger technologies.

Regulatory frameworks and approaches analyzed in Part II of this Power Map series have been collected in FPA’s Cryptocurrency Database, a navigable tool developed exclusively for FPA. This database is a comprehensive regional and country-level breakdown of cryptocurrency regulation across 117 countries. This searchable database captures regulations primarily concerning native cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, not CBDCs. For easy navigation, the database can be sorted by country, region, and whether cryptocurrencies have been banned. For a deeper dive into each country’s regulatory frameworks, relevant articles concerning the country’s mining, taxing, and other digital currency activities have been included.

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Filter by banned/not banned:

Additional Resources and References:

Perkins Coie
Proelium Law
Freeman Law

Regulations of Cryptocurrency Around the World, Library of Congress (2018) - PDF version available

Open source information

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