Horatio Smith (pen name) is a strategic analyst at the Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Policy, Office of Information Operations Policy, and an intelligence officer in the U.S. Navy Reserve. His articles have appeared in War on the Rocks, Foreign Policy, and the CIA’s Studies in Intelligence Journal.
All statements of fact, analysis, or opinion are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the U.S. government or any of its offices or components. This article has been reviewed by the U.S. government to prevent the disclosure of classified information. The U.S. government is aware of the author’s identity.